Many people in developing countries lack access to health technologies, even basic ones. Why do these problems in access persist? What can be done to improve access to good health technologies, especially for poor people in poor countries? This book answers those questions by developing a comprehensive analytical framework for access and examining six case studies. Access to health technologies in poor countries is shaped by social, economic, political, and cultural processes.
Chapter 22 - Macro policy in developing countries. After reading this chapter, you should be able to: State some comparative statistics on rich and poor countries, differentiate growth from development and explain how those differences affect macroeconomic policy, explain the particular problems of monetary policy in a developing country context, list seven obstacles facing developing countries.
Since 1993, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam has pursued a policy of restructuring its
external debt in order to reduce its debt burden. In 2002, the Bretton Woods institutions
prepared a debt sustainability analysis that concluded that the country was not eligible
for the Enhanced Highly Indebted Poor Country (HIPC) Initiative. Furthermore, in
2003, the Vietnamese authorities approved a debt strategy for the period of 2001-2010
formulated by the Ministry of Planning and Investment (MPI).
01 November 2011 | voaspecialenglish.com
The World at 7 Billion, and Growing
Commuters at the Churchgate train station in Mumbai, India, on Monday, October 31
(You can download an MP3 of this story at voaspecialenglish.com) This is the VOA Special English Health Report. The United Nations estimates that the world reached seven billion people on Monday. No one can be sure. The United States Census Bureau does not expect that to happen until March. Populations are growing faster than economies in many poor countries in Africa and some in Asia.
Introduction Global food production has grown faster than the world's population over the past forty years. Yet many poor countries and millions of poor people continue to suffer from food insecurity and hunger. USDA’ Economic Research Service (ERS) estimates that a third of the population of s 67 developing countries— roughly 900 million people— currently suffer
The model shows that developing countries will consume and produce a much greater share of the
world’s fish in the future, and trade in fish commodities will also increase. As aquaculture expands, especially
in developing countries, environmental concerns such as effluent pollution, escaped farmed fish,
land conversion, and pressure on stocks from fishmeal demand will only increase with time unless technologies
and policies promote sustainable intensification.
In the study performed by Purushotham et al. (2011) showed that about 28% of total
hardness in the study site exceeded the desirable limits at 600 mg L-1. Naturally, the water
hardness is due to the presence of alkaline earths such as calcium (Ca) and magnesium
(Mg). Excess of magnesium affects the soil quality, which results in poor crops yield. The
high concentration of magnesium and calcium can cause decrease in water quality and may
cause encrustation in the water supply structure.
Given that the adverse affects of climate change on agriculture are expected to burden poor
countries disproportionately, and their rural poor in particular, Bolivia is especially vulnerable as
it is the poorest country in South America with at least 70% of the rural population living in
poverty and more than a third of rural Bolivians living in extreme poverty. Those citizens who
have been displaced by natural disasters in rural areas often remain at risk in urban areas as
shantytowns and slums are frequently situated on land prone to flooding or landslide.
The Economics of Global Health
Political and economic concerns have often guided global health interventions. As mentioned previously, early efforts to control yellow fever were tied to the completion of the Panama Canal. However, the precise nature of the link between economics and health remains a matter for debate. Some economists and demographers argue that economic development is the key to improving the health status of populations, while others maintain that ill health is the chief barrier to development in poor countries.
The IDB’s measures of the impact of the funds and the outstanding is-
sues and conclusions from the IDB study are summarized here.
Despite the large amount of resources that the IDB and the World Bank
have been lending to the funds, their scope is small. Only one fund in
the region, Nicaragua, spends as much as 1 percent of the gross domes-
tic product (GDP) in its fund; only three countries—Chile, Panama, and
Uruguay—spend more than US$15 per year per poor person. And the
poor countries on average spend less than US$10 a year.
The World Bank (WB) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), as the leading lending agencies, have been under mounting pressure to deal with a wide range of debt sustainability challenges. The challenges have refused to subside. Instead they continue to stimulate urgent need for a new debt sustainability framework and debt management orientation that can allow for the borrowing economies to break the vicious circle of unending distress.
efficiency and quality. NGOs should be involved as management partners of the
government for the shrimp cultivating areas. This will help reduce social tensions
among various groups in the cultivating areas and ensure participation of the poor
communities in all activities including decision making process.
9. Financial Support: Farmers, depot owners, small boat owners and transporters
suffer from lack of capital to perform fishing activities. They have to rely on
informal sources such as middlemen and traders for credit at a very high cost.
Why the workforce is important
In this first decade of the 21st century, immense
advances in human well-being coexist with
extreme deprivation. In global health we are witnessing
the benefits of new medicines and technologies.
But there are unprecedented reversals.
Life expectancies have collapsed in some of the
poorest countries to half the level of the richest –
attributable to the ravages of HIV/AIDS in parts of sub-Saharan Africa and to
more than a dozen “failed states”.
Conventional approaches to health in poor countries focus on disease–speciﬁc
interventions and their cost effectiveness, implemented via the path of least
resistance with a strong emphasis on short term results. The upshot is that sys-
temic problems which underlie poor health, failing health systems, and health
inequity are circumvented. Long–term, sustainable strategies are rarely devel-
oped or deployed. The crisis may change its spots, expressing itself in different
diseases, populations or geographic areas, but it essentially continues unabated.
There are three sets of examples to discuss. They concern the way modern theories of
economic growth view fertility and natural resources, the way population growth and economic
stress in poor countries are studied by environmental and resource economists, and the way
development economists accomodate environmental stress in their analysis of contemporary
poverty. The examples are discussed in the next three sub-sections. If I grumble, there is cause.
Overall Health: Early pregnancy and childbear-
ing negatively affect the overall health of young
women and their children. In poor countries, ado-
lescent mothers are twice as likely to die from preg-
nancy- or childbirth-related causes as older moth-
ers. Data from 15 developing countries reveal that
adolescents under the age of 17 are far less likely
to receive skilled prenatal and delivery care than
women between the ages of 19 and 23 (Reynolds
et al., 2003).
Already about two decades ago, Robert Lucas (1990) asked: “Why Doesn’t Capital Flow
from Rich to Poor Countries?”, wondering why only very little capital in net term was
flowing from the industrial world to developing economies. In the past years, this trend has
even aggravated: Nowadays, in many cases, net capital flows have reversed and are now
flowing from developing and emerging countries towards the rich world, especially towards
the United States, United Kingdom, Australia and Spain.
While microcredit has experienced impressive growth rates in the past decade and has been
widely lauded for its potential in economic development, it is questionable whether it is able
to overcome this problem by itself. Proponents of microfinance have long been arguing that
there is a large unmet demand for small-scale loans in developing countries. Robinson (2001)
argues that in the poor world, there might be as many as 1.
The numerous limitations faced by women,
particularly in rural areas, have compelled them to
look for alternative options in other places. For
example, in Latin America, a great part of the
migrations from rural areas during the 1960s and
1970s was made up of women seeking better
opportunities as maids in cities (Villarreal 1996). In
recent decades, rural women have continued to
migrate to urban areas and, besides domestic
work, they are also employed in export assembly
plants or maquilas, particularly in Central America
(Vargas-Lundius 2007, 221-27).