Population and community structure

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  • Benthic algae have been intensively studied, especially over the past two decades. This intensity has been stimulated by the widespread recognition that benthic algae are ideal indicators of the health of many, if not most, aquatic ecosystems. With this book we hope to synthesize this vital area of research and share its essence with our colleagues and students. We started with an outline of the myriad abiotic and biotic determinants of benthic algal ecology.

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  • In engaging and conversational style, "Teaching About Evolution and the Nature of Science" provides a well-structured framework for understanding and teaching evolution. Written for teachers, parents, and community officials as well as scientists and educators, this book describes how evolution reveals both the great diversity and similarity among the Earth's organisms; it explores how scientists approach the question of evolution; and it illustrates the nature of science as a way of knowing about the natural world.

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  • In this introductory chapter, we indicate the aims and structure of this book. We also indicate some of the ways in which the book is not synoptic in its coverage, but rather offers an interlinked account of some major developments in our understanding of the dynamics of ecological systems, from populations to communities, along with practical applications to important problems.

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  • The landmass on which we live is an integral part of our water catchment. Any human activity will inevitably have some consequences on the availability and composition of fresh waters. These consequences are becoming increasingly important and detectable as the human population grows. The problem is to be addressed at the global scale, as frequently, decisions made have inter-regional and international impacts, and must therefore be coordinated. In a number of European Member States, for example, the availability of water resources depends on the activities of other upstream countries.

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  • How are pollutants transformed after their release into the environment? How are organisms exposed, and how do physiological alterations impact population dynamics and community structure? What direct or indirect impacts occur? As early as the 50s and 60s people living near industrial plants began to recognize undesirable changes in their environment - and to ask these very questions. The discipline of environmental toxicology addresses these questions.

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  • 27 Effects of Contaminants on Trophic Structure and Food Webs The empirical patterns are widespread and abundantly documented, but instead of an agreed explanation there is only a list of possibilities to be explored. (May 1981) There has been little synthesis of the relative roles of different ecological forces in determining population change and community structure. Rather, there is a collection of idiosyncratic systems, with their associated protagonists, in which opposing views on the importance of particular factors are debated. (Hunter and Price 1992) 27.

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  • efficiency and quality. NGOs should be involved as management partners of the government for the shrimp cultivating areas. This will help reduce social tensions among various groups in the cultivating areas and ensure participation of the poor communities in all activities including decision making process. 9. Financial Support: Farmers, depot owners, small boat owners and transporters suffer from lack of capital to perform fishing activities. They have to rely on informal sources such as middlemen and traders for credit at a very high cost.

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  • Dualism is a dominant theory of life that considers reality to be a balance between two independent and fundamental principles: good and evil, mind and matter, nature and nurture. In the same manner we see the thread of dualism run through the ecology of parasitism: they can generate diversity but cause extinction, they may castrate a host but increase its growth rate, and they can stimulate an immune response but at the same time encourage a secondary chronic infection.

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  • Among technological options experimented to reach the unbanked and underbanked populations mostly in the rural areas are the satellite (mobile) branches, which allow to serve financially-excluded geographical areas where mainstream banks found it unprofitable to set up brick and mortar infra- structures. Savings banks in Uganda and Zimbabwe operate mobile banking units, which consist of vans equipped with information and communication technology touring remote communities on fixed dates to render banking services.

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  • The scope of this book is to demonstrate that we do have an ecosystem theory that can be used to describe ecosystem structure and function. It was previously shown in the book, Integration of Ecosystem Theories: A Pattern (3rd edition, 2002), that the various contributions to systems ecology are consistent and together form a pattern of ecological processes. My book with Yuri Svirezhev, Toward a Thermodynamic Theory of Ecosystems (2004), presented the thermodynamics of this pattern in a mathematical language....

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  • SECTION III COMMUNITY ECOLOGY SPECIES CO-OCCURRING AT A SITE INTERACT TO VARIOUS degrees, both directly and indirectly, in ways that have intrigued ecologists since earliest times. These interactions represent mechanisms that control population dynamics, hence community structure, and also control rates of energy and matter fluxes.

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  • Alterations to fire regimes have resulted in many changes to the biological communities including changes in vegetation composition and structure and vegetation type conversions or ecosystem migrations. This text details many of these changes, explains how fire has changed as an ecosystem process, and provides insights for determining the direction that the changes might take in the future.

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  • Population-based registries require information on the size and the nature of the population served, information which requires the avail- ability of census data. Censuses are particularly difficult to conduct in developing countries, and so they tend to be conducted infrequently, and their results may become available late and with inadequate detail.

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