This is an introductory textbook on mathematical ecology bridging the subdisciplines
of population ecology and ecosystem ecology. The expected reader is you: a beginning
graduate student, advanced undergraduate student, or someone who thinks of
themselves as a student all their lives, with a working knowledge of basic calculus
and basic ecology. While this is intended as a stand-alone text, the level is such that
once you have read through it, you will be able to read more advanced texts and
monographs such as Ågren and Bosatta (1998) and Kot (2001) with greater depth.
Our goal in writing this book was to describe
why weeds occur where they do. We have
made no attempt to discuss their management
and control: there are excellent texts
available for that. Rather, we think that students
should understand how and why
weeds fit into their environment. This text
presents ecological principles as they relate
to weeds. Ecology is central to our understanding
of how and why weeds invade and
yet there are few books that make this connection.
That is the niche we hope to fill.
Chapter 53 - Population ecology. In this chapter, you should now be able to: Define and distinguish between the following sets of terms: density and dispersion; clumped dispersion, uniform dispersion, and random dispersion; life table and reproductive table; Type I, Type II, and Type III survivorship curves; semelparity and iteroparity; r-selected populations and K-selected populations. This chapter also explain how ecologists may estimate the density of a species, explain how limited resources and trade-offs may affect life histories,...
Research in tropical forestry is confronted with the task of finding strategies to alleviate pressure on remaining forests, and techniques to enhance forest regeneration and restore abandoned lands, using productive alternatives that can be attractive to local human populations. In addition, sustainable forestry in tropical countries must be supported by adequate policies to promote and maintain specific activities at local and regional scales.
Ecotoxicological models have been applied increasingly to perform chemical risk assessments since the first models of this kind emerged about 25 years ago. The first ecotoxicological models were applied to very specific cases — for instance, cadmium contamination of Lake Erie or mercury contamination of Mex Bay, Alexandria. The models were inspired by the experience gained in ecological modeling and therefore contained good descriptions of ecological processes. Slightly later, the so-called fate models emerged, which were first developed by McKay and others.
Because of its accessibility, the intertidal zone has offered
excellent opportunities to study the adaptations of individual
organisms and populations to their environment,
and the factors controlling community composition. Early
work on seashores concentrated on the problems of life
in an environment characterized by steep gradients in
physical conditions, but in more recent years, the focus
of research on the fascinating shore ecosystems has been
on understanding the processes controlling their productivity
and dynamic functioning.
The editors express gratitude to the people whose advice and help at critical points in
the project helped the volume come to fruition. Leanne Nash, Catherine Tucker, Glenn
Stone, Dick Norgaard, as well as reviewers for New York University Press, pointed us to
useful publications. Nora Haenn worked on the reader as a Mellon Foundation Fellow
in Anthropology and Demography while at the Carolina Population Center, University
of North Carolina. In addition to the Foundation, she thanks the Carolina Population
Center for building such a supportive research atmosphere.
Since the 1930s, the USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture) Forest
Service’s International Institute of Tropical Forestry (the Institute) has
studied mahogany and its management. In the 1960s, F.B. Lamb, the author
of the classic book on mahogany (1966), was an Institute collaborator.
Before gene flow and genetic erosion became popular terms, my predecessor
Frank Wadsworth established a gene bank at the Luquillo Experimental
Of the many books that have been written about weed management, most
have focused on the use of herbicides. This volume is different. Instead of providing
information about chemical weed control technologies, the emphasis
here is on weed management procedures that rely on manipulations of ecological
conditions and relationships. By focusing on ecologically based
methods of management, we have been able to provide in-depth treatment of
subjects that most weed science books treat only briefly.
The epidemiology of infectious diseases is one of the great triumphs of applied
ecology. In particular, the public health importance of parasites has
lead to a large literature, exploring their impact on the population dynamics,
population genetics and evolutionary biology of human populations. An
important milestone was the Dahlem Conference on population biology of infectious
diseases, held in 1981. The resulting book (Anderson and May 1982)
lucidly summarised the contemporary state of parasite ecology and epidemiology.
The theory and practice of molecular ecology draw on a number of subjects,
particularly genetics, ecology and evolutionary biology. Although the foundations
of molecular ecology are not particularly new, it did not emerge until the 1980s as
the discipline that we now recognize. Since that time the growth of molecular
ecology has been explosive, in part because molecular data are becoming increasingly
accessible and also because it is, by its very nature, a collaborative discipline.
A POPULATION IS A GROUP OF INTERBREEDING MEMBERS of a species. A number of more or less discrete subpopulations may be distributed over the geographic range of a species population.
The scope of this book is to demonstrate that we do have an ecosystem theory that can be
used to describe ecosystem structure and function. It was previously shown in the book,
Integration of Ecosystem Theories: A Pattern (3rd edition, 2002), that the various contributions
to systems ecology are consistent and together form a pattern of ecological
processes. My book with Yuri Svirezhev, Toward a Thermodynamic Theory of Ecosystems
(2004), presented the thermodynamics of this pattern in a mathematical language....
This book, now in its third edition, began almost 25 years ago when Weed
Ecology: Implications for Vegetation Management was published in 1984. That
text concentrated on the need for farmers, foresters, rangeland managers, and the
researchers who advised them to understand better the biology of weeds and
the role people play in creating and maintaining weeds in agriculture and other
production systems. We were assisted in that first effort by the writings of many
early scientists, such as J. L. Harper, H. G. Baker, and E. J.
This book is about the distribution and abundance of different
types of organism, and about the physical, chemical but especially
the biological features and interactions that determine these
distributions and abundances.
Unlike some other sciences, the subject matter of ecology is
apparent to everybody: most people have observed and pondered
nature, and in this sense most people are ecologists of sorts. But
ecology is not an easy science.
In this introductory chapter, we indicate the aims
and structure of this book. We also indicate some
of the ways in which the book is not synoptic in its
coverage, but rather offers an interlinked account
of some major developments in our understanding
of the dynamics of ecological systems, from
populations to communities, along with practical
applications to important problems.
Previously published in hardback and now made available in paperback, this ground-breaking book is a must for all interested in butterflies, whether as conservation biologist, amateur or professional entomologist or as a student studying the phenomenon of butterfly populations as part of a number of biology, ecology or conservation courses. Recently, many British butterflies have suffered severe declines whole others have flourished and expanded in range. This is the first book to describe the results from a British scheme to monitor butterflies during this period of change.
Environmental pollution has played a critical role in human lives since
the early history of the nomadic tribes. During the last millennium,
industrial revolution, increased population growth and urbanization have
been the major determinants in shaping our environmental quality.
Initially primary air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide and particulate
matter were of concern. For example, the killer fog of London in 1952
resulted in significant numbers of human fatality leading to major air
pollution control measures....