Four decades have passed since the fi rst edition of this textbook. During
the 1960s and 1970s, the Supreme Court waged a campaign to reform the
criminal justice system through the selective incorporation of Bill of Rights
safeguards into the Fourteenth Amendment. Having constitutionalized criminal
procedure, the Supreme Court then elaborated a set of constitutionally
mandated restraints on police behavior. The “goodness” or “badness” of a
legal precept, nevertheless, depends on how well it works in practice. This can
only be known through empirical validation.
Anytime user-supplied data is collected and redistributed for mass consumption online or via mainstream media, there
is a risk that the content could be malicious or abusive. Spam, derogatory comments, pornography, or various forms
of malware are all common examples. Moderators are typically present in online message boards, chatrooms, mailing
list, etc. to remove any offensive material. On T.V. the familiar sound bleeps and blackout blocks provide roughly the
Every new technology brings with it both excitement and anxiety. No sooner was the Internet upon us in the 1990s than anxiety arose over the ease of accessing pornography and other controversial content. In response, entrepreneurs soon developed filtering products. By the end of the decade, a new industry had emerged to create and market Internet filters.
These filters were highly imprecise. The problem was intrinsic to filtering technology.
This report presents the full findings from a new and
unique survey designed and conducted according
to rigorous standards by the EU Kids Online
network. It was funded by the European
Commissions’ Safer Internet Programme in order to
strengthen the evidence base for policies regarding
A random stratified sample of 25,142
children aged 9-16 who use the internet, plus
one of their parents, was interviewed during
Spring/Summer 2010 in 25 European countries.
This national survey of youth, ages 10 to 17, and their caretakers has several implications
for the current debate about young people and Internet pornography. Twentyfive
percent of youth had unwanted exposure to sexual pictures on the Internet in the
past year, challenging the prevalent assumption that the problem is primarily about
young people motivated to actively seek out pornography.
These ways of socializing and communicating
can be fulfilling, and yet, they come with
The online world can feel anonymous. Kids
sometimes forget that they are still accountable
for their actions.
Some people online have bad intentions, including
bullies, predators, hackers, and scammers.
You may be concerned that your kids could find
pornography, violence, or hate speech online.
After studying this chapter you will be able to: Recognize types an patterns of burn injuries found in child abuse; define and discuss shaken-baby syndrome; explain munchausen syndrome by proxy; identify types of child molesters, and explain investigative and interview techniques for cases of child molestation; outline types of child pornography; define incest and outline profiles of incestuous fathers; describe the profile of infant abductors;...