Porous solids

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  • Porous metal organic framework nanoscale carriers as a potential platform for drug delivery and imaging, In the domain of health, one important challenge is the efficient delivery of drugs in the body using non-toxic nanocarriers. Most of the existing carrier materials show poor drug loading and or rapid release of the proportion of the drug that is simply adsorbed at the external surface of the nanocarrier.

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  • Wave propagation in solids has been widely studied and principal advances in this field have been achieved not only for the improvements of calculus methods, but also for the high progresses attained in the description of new types of materials. This book presents innovative and original research studies describing some enhancement in both directions.

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  • The dual fluidized beds experimental set up is made of transparent perspex material. The system consists of a fast bed riser, a cyclone to separate the solids, a down comer with a L- valve, a bubbling fluidized bed and a return pipe with another L-valve. The system is shown schematically in Fig 1. The solids after passing through the fast bed riser gets separated in the cyclone, descend downwards through the down comer and enter the bubbling bed reactor through the L-valve. A part of bed materials in the bubbling bed system are then transferred back into the...

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  • Adsorption occurs whenever a solid surface is exposed to a gas or liquid: it is defined as the enrichment of material or increase in the density of the fluid in the vicinity of an interface. Under certain conditions, there is an appreciable enhancement in the concentration of a particular component and the overall effect is then dependent on the extent of the interfacial area. For this reason, all industrial adsorbents have large specific surface areas (generally well in excess of 100mZg-I) and are therefore highly porous or composed of very fine particles...

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  • Greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, and ozone, play an important role in balancing the temperature of the Earth’s surface by absorbing and emitting radiation within the thermal infrared range from the source. However, with the enormous burning of fossil fuels from the industrial revolution, the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has greatly increased.

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  • Pulp and paper is a mature industry. Industrialised paper manufacturing in Europe started in the early 19th century (Berkhout, 2005). It is a capital and resource-intensive industry that contributes to many environmental problems, including global warming, human tox- icity, eco-toxicity, photochemical oxidation, acidification, nutrification, and solid wastes (Blazejczak and Edler, 2000). Paper is made of natural fibres, either from wood or from recycled materials. Figure 1 below presents a schematic representation of the production system.

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  • Carbon T Takamura, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China & 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Physical and Chemical Properties of Carbon Families Morphology of Carbon Carbon is solid under ambient temperature and pressure and there are four allotropes: diamond, graphite, nanotubes and fullerenes, and carbynes, and in addition, there are many morphologies including amorphous carbons, glass-like carbons, porous carbons, and so on.

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  • Porous hydroxyapatite ceramic was synthesized by solid phase method using Ca(OH)2 and Ca3(PO4)2 at the temperature interval 200 - 350o C. The samples, after pelleting and sintering, were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Porous structure of hydroxyapatite was obtained with the 42 – 55% porosity.

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  • The increasi1ng level of heavy metals in the water environmental represents a serious threat to human health and ecological systems. These contaminants must be removed from water resources. Various treatment technologies have been developed. In this paper, the potential of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution by using porous aluminosilicate was studied. The solid sorbents were synthesized by reaction of sodium silicate and alumino sulfate with sol-gel method.

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