Postpartum period

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Omental infarction in the postpartum period: a case report and a review of the literature

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  • Nutritional deficiencies during pregnancy usually lead to intrauterine growth retardation, which is one of the main causes of foetal and infant undernutrition in developing countries. Every year, 30 million newborns, or 23% of 126 million births per year, are affected by intrauterine growth retardation; by contrast, in developed countries the rate is only about 2% (World Health Organization 2000a).

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  • Receptors for the key female reproductive hormones, estrogens, are found throughout the entire brain including prefrontal cortex, hypothalamus, neocortex, hippocampus, amygdala, striatum, and brain stem. The neurotransmitter systems involved in depression (serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, cetylcholine, GABA, glutamate) are regulated by the action of estrogen. Research suggests that women may have increased susceptibility to depression and mood disorders during two key lifecycle transitions: pregnancy and the postpartum period, and perimenopause.

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  • The analysis is primary based on the national American Housing Survey (AHS) data for the period 1995 through 2003. In some cases, the research was extended to include the national level AHS data for 1985 onwards. One of the challenges to this effort is how to define elderly housing consumption. As will be discussed in the literature summary below, there are a number of standard assumptions but several of these will merit a brief discussion prior to our highlighting the different research.

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  • For years, prenatal care has been recognized as a component of obstetrical care; however, until the latter half of the twentieth century it has been relatively limited. In the 1970s and 1980s studies showed that an investment in earlier and more comprehensive prenatal care resulted in a cost savings by decreasing preterm births and delivery complications. Over the past 20 years, as technology and the Human Genome Project have impacted medical care, the scope of prenatal care has also changed.

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  • During the twelve month period that ended June 30, 2010, the most frequent types of inquiries received on the Regulatory Helpline remained the same as those highlighted in the October 2009 SAR Activity Review. 24 During this period, inquiries related to “assistance with SAR form” accounted for 33 percent of all SAR inquiries, compared with 38 percent of all SAR inquiries during the previous 12 month period.

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  • The poor nutritional status of women in developing countries has been associated with maternal mortality. Maternal deaths do not result from malnutrition alone, however, but mainly from a lack of access to obstetric care and from previous conditions that may be aggravated by poor nutrition.

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  • Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease Up to 90% of pregnant women experience nausea and vomiting during the first trimester of pregnancy. Occasionally, hyperemesis gravidarum requires hospitalization to prevent dehydration, and sometimes parenteral nutrition is required. Crohn's disease may be associated with exacerbations in the second and third trimesters. Ulcerative colitis is associated with disease exacerbations in the first trimester and during the early postpartum period.

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  • The period of confinement during birth and 6 weeks after. During this time, the reproductive tract returns anatomically to a normal nonpregnant state. Uterine Changes INVOLUTION OF THE UTERINE CORPUS Immediately after delivery, the fundus of the contracted uterus is slightly below the umbilicus. After the first 2 days postpartum, the uterus begins to shrink in size.

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  • Anxiety disorders are also common in the perinatal period. A systematic review of anxiety disorders during pregnancy and the postpartum period by Ross and McLean (12) revealed that these disorders are "common" during the perinatal period. They found that reported rates of obsessive-compulsive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder are higher in postpartum women than in the general population. As a result of their findings, they emphasized that the perinatal context represents a unique opportunity for the detection and management of anxiety disorders. ...

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  • Family planning refers to a conscious effort by a couple to limit or space the number of children they want to have through the use of contraceptive methods. Information about use of contraceptive methods was collected from female respondents by asking if they (or their partner) were currently using a method. Contraceptive methods are classified as modern and traditional methods. Modern methods include female sterilization, male sterilization, pill, IUD, injectables, implants, male condom, diaphragm, lactational amenorrhea method (LAM), and standard days method.

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  • In 1996 Warner et al. (27) demonstrated that in the UK the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in the postnatal period varied between 10-15%. With regards to postnatal depression, a systematic literature review carried out by Robertson et al. (28), found that the rates of both, first onset and severe depression were three times higher in the postnatal period than during other periods of women's lives. In a large proportion of women with postnatal depression, symptoms persist for at least a year postpartum.

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  • Unfortunately, in LMICs the situation does not seem to be better. A detailed review of 2882 deaths of women during pregnancy, or up to 42 days postpartum, conducted in three provinces in Vietnam, found that 29% of those deaths were attributed to non-natural causes (suicide, murder and accidents) of which 14% were due to suicide (65). An enlarged study conducted by the WHO, covering seven provinces in Vietnam, confirmed the high percentage of suicides among women in the perinatal period: 8% to 16.5%, depending on the province (66). Lal et al.

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