The balance sheets of life and non-life insurance companies reflect the importance of
technical (insurance underwriting) risks for insurance firms. Life insurance companies
typically have the greater part of their liabilities taken up by technical provisions, in some
jurisdictions more than 80 percent. This reflects the amount that the firm is setting aside to
pay potential claims on the policies that it has written. Correspondingly, more than 90 percent
of the assets of life insurance companies comprise the investment portfolio held to support
Whereas the selection of segmentation variables mainly drawn from management
needs is straightforward, the selection of variables used as descriptors of the identified
segments is more complex. This complexity stems not only from the enormous num-
ber of possible variables, but also from the necessary twofold link these variables have
to offer, namely the link with the selected segmentation variables on the one hand, and
the link with secondary data on media profiles, distributional coverage etc.
From the perspective of behavioral economics, rationality is bounded by asymmetrical preferences. Consider, for example, status quo bias. Samuelson and Zeckhauser (1988) reported that when Harvard University changed some of the health insurance options it offered employees, newly hired personnel were more likely to enroll than were people already on the university’s payroll; those employees generally chose to keep their current plans. The appeal of the status quo can be explained, in part, by the concept of loss aversion.
Interest income is recognized on the accrual basis.
Dividend income and distributions from investment
trust units are recognized on the ex-dividend and
ex-distribution date, respectively.
Interest on inflation-indexed bonds will be paid
based on the principal value, which is adjusted for
inflation. The inflation adjustment of the principal
value is recognized as part of interest income in the
Statement of Operations.
Paraplegia remains a potential complication of spinal cord ischemic reperfusion injury (IRI) in which oxidative stress induced cyclooxygenase activities may contribute to ischemic neuronal damage. Prolonged administration of vitamin E (α-TOL), as a potent biological antioxidant, may have a protective role in this oxidative inflammatory ischemic cascade to reduce the incidence of paraplegia. The present study was designed to evaluate the preventive value of α-TOL in IRI of spinal cord.
The benefits of nonemergency fund operations are the services that come
out of the infrastructure they build, not the income generated during
construction for carpenters and bricklayers.
In evaluating fund projects, the value added as a result of the extra
services coming from the project should be considered. This distinction
is relevant for projects that upgrade or replace infrastructure, as op-
posed to those that build new infrastructure.
The Government in May 2011 approved the Medium Term Plan (MTP), which is expected to drive economic growth over the next five years, 2011-15. The Plan will guide the formulation of National Budgets and other social-economic policies of the State. The MTP requires US$9 billion to be implemented over the period 2011-15 and funding is expected from the domestic and external sources including reliance on Public Private Partnership (PPP).
This report evaluates the responses of the United
Nations to the questions of human cloning governance.
The difference between reproductive human cloning
and using of cloning technology for research is explained
followed by an ethical analysis of cloning.
Discussion of ethics at the UN level often brings to mind
the notion of deep, profound, commonly held principles
to guide human actions. While general ethical principles,
such as the principle of doing no harm in medical practice,
are widely respected, the question of what amounts to
harm is less easily deﬁ ned.
To improve the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB), more rapid diagnostic techniques such as antibody
detection based on immunochromatographic methods were developed. The objective of this study was to
evaluate the performance of the SD Rapid TB kit for the diagnosis of active TB with serums from patients and close
contact controls in Antananarivo, Madagascar.
Findings: We conducted a population-based case-control study. The sera of 60 confirmed TB patients and 60
healthy contacts paired for sex and age were tested.
The macroeconomic configuration at the present time is conducive to sizeable interest rate
exposures in the financial industry. Because virtually all firms are tempted to take the same
risks (“herding”), there is also a very important systemic dimension. All firms will not be able
to get out when expectations of future rates change – leading to “overshooting” in market
interest rates or even illiquidity in interest rate hedging markets.
The learning environment we present consists of several components (modules) that are well-known Web 2.0 applications such as wikis, weblogs, social bookmarking services and RSS feeds. The section describing the implementation of the environment in a use case at the Darmstadt University of Applied Science focuses on the specific didactic contribution the particular learning modules render towards the entire learning arrangement.
To support replication, each spanserver implements a
single Paxos state machine on top of each tablet. (An
early Spanner incarnation supported multiple Paxos state
machines per tablet, which allowed for more ﬂexible
replication conﬁgurations. The complexity of that de-
sign led us to abandon it.) Each state machine stores
its metadata and log in its corresponding tablet. Our
Paxos implementation supports long-lived leaders with
time-based leader leases, whose length defaults to 10
The Programs may provide links to Web sites and access to content, products, and services from third
parties. Oracle is not responsible for the availability of, or any content provided on, third-party Web sites.
You bear all risks associated with the use of such content. If you choose to purchase any products or services
from a third party, the relationship is directly between you and the third party.
The position’s major responsibility is to plan and implement programmes and strategies to assist DIT
in achieving its goals through fundraising and other outreach efforts designed to enhance the DIT’s
position as a leading third level academic and research institution.
Capital ownership costs for milk production (economic depreciation and interest) are computed
using the capital recovery approach. Capital recovery is an estimate of the cost of replacing the
capital investment for cattle housing, milking facilities, feed storage structures, manure handling
and storage structures, feed handling equipment, tractors, trucks, and purchased dairy herd
replacements used up in the annual production process, plus interest that the remaining capital
could have earned in an alternative use.
Academic library directors can have a positive and profound impact on the future of academic
print collections by adopting and implementing a deliberate strategy to build and sustain
regional print service centers that can meet aggregate demand with aggregate supply. Beyond
the obvious operational efficiencies of consolidating low-use, digitized print volumes into
shared service collections there is an important strategic advantage to reconfiguring
collective inventory that is increasingly devalued as an institutional asset.
Natural variations in pH and oxygen status are also important and are not restricted to deep
environments. Many groundwaters in tropical regions in weathered basement aquifers and
alluvial sequences have low pH, and the reducing conditions which prevail can promote the
mobilisation of metals and other parameters of health significance such as arsenic.
More important, this abstraction separates different Organizations from each other. Even if they happen to be
assigned common networks, datastores, or resource pools, they cannot modify or even see each other’s vApps
without explicitly sharing them. (The exception is vApps connected to the same External Network, as they’re
sharing the same vSwitch.) Providing Organizations with unique datastores, networks, and resource pools
enforces even greater separation between the Organizations through the quotas you can set in those
This issue also comes up with the valuation of difficult to estimate insurance liabilities.
While a value may be estimable by an actuary, how reliable is that estimate? Can the user
depend on that value, or could the user instead be materially misled by relying on that
value? If a range of estimates could be produced, but only the low end of the possible
valuation range could be reliably determined, booking the low end of the range may pro-
duce a reliable estimate but how relevant would it be? Would more disclosure be required
to make the...
The shift of retirement funding from professionally managed DB plans to
personal savings vehicles implies that investors need to make their own decisions
about how to allocate retirement savings and what products should be used to
generate income in retirement. This shift naturally creates a huge demand for
professional investment advice throughout the investor’s life cycle (in both the
accumulation stage and the retirement stage).
This financial advice must obviously focus on more than simply traditional