Since 2005, a dozen of the United States and more than 15 medical specialties have
reported a physician shortage or anticipate one in the next few years. This anticipated
shortage and a worsening of physician distribution are compounded by a
projected increased demand for health care services. Health care of women of all
ages is particularly vulnerable. The obstetrician gynecologist workforce is aging
and is among the least satisfied medical specialists. Primary care physicians such
as family physicians and general internists will be asked to care for more women
who are elderly.
This working paper focuses on the relevance of social, socioeconomic and behavioural
factors on health status and mortality in a longitudinal setting and in a life-course perspective.
First, we identify those factors which determine the health status of people aged 60+ in
Germany. Based on this, our second aim is to find factors which determine transitions from
good general health status, or from the absence of specific diseases, to a bad general health
status or the presence of specific diseases.
Including urinary issues in the gynecologic evaluation is helpful. Urinary
tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common reasons to seek medical
care and are sometimes triggered by sexual activity. Urinary incontinence is
an increasingly recognized health problem (see Chapter 10).
Finally, because domestic violence is common (2), screening for current or
previous physical, emotional, or sexual abuse is an important part of the pa-
tient’s history and in some states is mandatory.
From the perspective of behavioral economics, rationality is bounded by asymmetrical preferences. Consider, for example, status quo bias. Samuelson and Zeckhauser (1988) reported that when Harvard University changed some of the health insurance options it offered employees, newly hired personnel were more likely to enroll than were people already on the university’s payroll; those employees generally chose to keep their current plans. The appeal of the status quo can be explained, in part, by the concept of loss aversion.
In May 2006, the nanotechnology consultancy
firm Lux Research published a report entitled
‘‘Taking action on nanotech environmental, safety
and health risks’’ (Lux Research, 2006). The report
addressed the potential impact of real and perceived
risks on nano-businesses from a commercial
perspective, and concluded that ‘‘One of the biggest
challenges facing firms commercializing
nanotechnology innovations today is managing
environmental, health and safety (EHS) risks)’’.
Paraplegia remains a potential complication of spinal cord ischemic reperfusion injury (IRI) in which oxidative stress induced cyclooxygenase activities may contribute to ischemic neuronal damage. Prolonged administration of vitamin E (α-TOL), as a potent biological antioxidant, may have a protective role in this oxidative inflammatory ischemic cascade to reduce the incidence of paraplegia. The present study was designed to evaluate the preventive value of α-TOL in IRI of spinal cord.
With the great voyages in the fifteenth century it became necessary to evaluate the damage
caused by the potential loss of ships. Emerges then the term risk, with connotations similar
to what is meant today, but the understanding of its causes was related to accidents and,
therefore, impossible to predict. The development of classical probability theory, in the midseventeenth
century, to solve problems related to gambling, allowed the start of the process
of quantifying the risks, but the causes were still credited to chance....
Given the importance of the insurance sector, its potential for growth, rapidly emerging
trends within the sector including the trend towards liberalization of insurance services, it
is essential to clearly understand the challenges and opportunities that arise from both the
development of the insurance sector as well as its liberalization for developing countries.
A mandate requiring all individuals to pur-
chase health insurance would be an unprece-
dented form of federal action. The government
has never required people to buy any good or
service as a condition of lawful residence in
the United States. An individual mandate
would have two features that, in combination,
would make it unique. First, it would impose
a duty on individuals as members of society.
Second, it would require people to purchase a
specific service that would be heavily regu-
lated by the federal government.
Both Planned Parenthood and the alternative sites we interviewed typically had
relationships with other local health care providers. Thus, changes that affect one set of clinics,
like Planned Parenthood, may have repercussions for other providers in the communities. Clinics
often refer patients for care at other facilities if they cannot provide the services themselves. For
example, if a woman is diagnosed with diabetes in a WHP exam at a family planning clinic, she
would be referred to a community health center or public primary care clinic for further follow-
up and care.
The presence or absence of diseases is strongly associated with individual health but did
not fulfil the multidimensional concept of health. Health is characterised by dynamic and
multi-factorial influences on the physical, psychological and social functioning of an
individual. On the one hand, an objective health status includes the set of diagnosed
physiological and psychological diseases of an individual.
You may be asked to choose between a “tax-qualified” long-term care
insurance policy and one that is “non-tax-qualified.” There are important
differences between the two types of policies. These differences were
created by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA).
A federally tax-qualified long-term care insurance policy, or a qualified
policy, offers certain federal income tax advantages. If you have a qualified
long-term care policy and you itemize your deductions, you may be able to
deduct part or all of the premium you pay for the policy.
Many policy makers and researchers believe that voluntary cost pooling of employees across small
ﬁrms will make insurance affordable to these ﬁrms. This is possible because, on average, expected costs
of employees at small ﬁrms are only slightly higher than large ﬁrms. We show that risk pooling across
ﬁrms may not work as well as this conventional wisdom would suggest, because of large between-ﬁrm
heterogeneity in employee characteristics at small ﬁrms.
Conventional approaches to health in poor countries focus on disease–speciﬁc
interventions and their cost effectiveness, implemented via the path of least
resistance with a strong emphasis on short term results. The upshot is that sys-
temic problems which underlie poor health, failing health systems, and health
inequity are circumvented. Long–term, sustainable strategies are rarely devel-
oped or deployed. The crisis may change its spots, expressing itself in different
diseases, populations or geographic areas, but it essentially continues unabated.
Although not specifically referred to as quick starting, previous Faculty guidance has advised
that contraceptive methods can be started at any point in the menstrual cycle if a
practitioner is reasonably certain that the woman is not currently pregnant (Box 1)8 or at risk
of pregnancy. As sperm may be viable in the female reproductive tract for up to 7 days,
health professionals should consider if a woman is at risk of becoming pregnant as a result of
unprotected sexual intercourse (UPSI) within the last 7 days.
Why indeed? You’ve done alright so far. But wouldn’t you like to do better?
In truth, it’s not really a matter of worry, more a case of having concerns.
While it would be daft to assume this twenty-first century lifestyle is going to
kill us all, it would be equally misguided to think we can live to our fullest
potential without putting a bit of effort into how we do it. And if you’ve got
as far as picking this book up and opening it you are probably almost as aware
of this as we are.
These are two dramatically different exercises. In recent decades much work in the
public health field has focused on the first, on identifying the primary causes of poor health,
including their prevalence and distribution, and on developing an evidence-based understanding
of the interventions that will work to addresses those causes. There is broad consensus on the
methodology for evaluating evidence of the efficacy of interventions.
Rapid improvements in health and nutrition in developing
countries may be ascribed to specific, deliberate, health- and
nutrition-related interventions and to changes in the underly-
ing social, economic, and health environments. This chapter
is concerned with the contribution of specific interventions,
while recognizing that improved living standards in the long
run provide the essential basis for improved health.
Bivariate and multivariate analyses were done to measure the effects of the interventions.
Knowledge of HIV/AIDS increased in the intervention sites compared to the control
sites, with greater improvement in Site B with the additional school-based intervention.
The knowledge of contraceptives improved in both intervention and control sites, with
the greatest improvement seen in Site A.
Height and weight of the subjects were measured using
standard procedures. The weight was measured using
SECA balance with minimum of cloths to the nearest of
100 gms and height was measured using an
anthropometric rod to the minimum of 0.5 cm. Body mass
index (BMI : weight in kg/height in meters2
calculated from heights and weights. A value ≤ 18.5 is
considered as a cut-off point for chronic energy
deficiency (CED) or undernutrition (thinness), while BMI
≥ 25 is considered as overweight or obese.
Prevalence of diseases in both groups separately was