Innovation is a natural talent of humanity. Over several recorded millennia,
curiosity has spurred discovery and the creation of artefacts that utilised natural
substances or phenomena to serve human needs. The goal has been, often, to
achieve something more quickly or with less effort or, in some cases, to extend
curiosity by setting new goals.
The workshop summarized in this volume was the third international meeting in a series
sponsored by the Forum on Drug Discovery, Development, and Translation of the Institute of
Medicine (IOM) to gather information from experts around the world on the threat of drugresistant
tuberculosis (TB) and how it can be addressed. The workshop was held April 18-19 and
21, 2011, in New Delhi, India, in collaboration with the Indian National Science Academy
(INSA) and the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR)....
The sequencing of the human genome has generated excitement about
the potential of genomic innovations to improve medical care, preventive and
community health services, and public health. Until fairly recently, genetic
information was used primarily in the diagnosis of relatively rare genetic diseases,
such as cystic fibrosis and Huntington’s Disease, but a transformation
in the use of genetic and genomic information is under way.
Genetic markers of increased risk for such chronic diseases as diabetes
and coronary artery disease have been identified.
First of all, we are delighted to be able to provide the "Innovative Rheumatology" to
everyone involved in the treatment and research of rheumatoid arthritis. In recent years, the
treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis has undergone tremendous changes due to methotrexate
and biologics in large part. Until a decade ago, avoiding joint destruction in rheumatoid
arthritis was not realistic for rheumatologist. However, prevention of joint deterioration is
now possible, and the quality of life of patients with rheumatoid arthritis in long-term has
been able to improve by advances in treatment.
The need for organizations to innovate and furthermore to ceaselessly innovate is stressed
throughout the modern management literature on innovation. This need comes from
increasing competition and customer demands and new market areas. Closely linked, but
not synonymous, with innovation is the body of knowledge referred to collectively as
knowledge management. Within this discourse knowledge is considered as a potential key
competitive advantage, by helping to increase innovation within the organization.
This book is one of the most comprehensive and up-to-date books written on Energy Efficiency. The readers will learn about different technologies for energy efficiency policies and programs to reduce the amount of energy. The book provides some studies and specific sets of policies and programs that are implemented in order to maximize the potential for energy efficiency improvement. It contains unique insights from scientists with academic and industrial expertise in the field of energy efficiency collected in this multi-disciplinary forum....
These groups fall into at least three classes: market, product and
sensory professionals. Of the three classes, two (market professionals and
sensory professionals) have well-defined responsibilities. The third class, the
“product professional” has eluded a clear definition of who they are and
what they do.
The market researcher studies the market, to understand market trends, and
to discover how the consumer fits into that market. When it comes to products,
market researchers focus on how the product and consumer come together for
Multi-robot systems (MRS) are becoming one of the most important areas
of research in Robotics, due to the challenging nature of the involved
research and to the multiple potential applications to areas such as
autonomous sensor networks, building surveillance, transportation of large
objects, air and underwater pollution monitoring, forest fire detection,
transportation systems, or search and rescue after large-scale disasters.
Computer science has drawn from and contributed to many
disciplines and practices since it emerged as a field in the
middle of the 20th century. Those interactions, in turn,
have contributed to the evolution of information technology:
New forms of computing and communications, and new applications,
continue to develop from the creative interaction of computer
science and other fields.
In the past decade manufacturers and retailers have
been gradually switching from above the line mass
media advertising to a variety of below the line sales
promotions. Although sales promotions take up a
very large share of total marketing expenditure, they
remain an area of less strategic consideration or
attention than any other aspect of the promotion mix
(Srinivasan and Anderson, 1998). The potential
benefits of using sales promotions could range from
giving immediacy and encouraging purchase of a
product or service by changing the perceived value-
The development and writing of this report presented considerable challenges in terms of both the
study schedule and the need to avoid conveying sensitive U.S. vulnerabilities to potential adversaries.
Meeting both challenges has been difficult for the study committee and staff, but every effort was made
to respond to the stated need of the Technology Warning Division of the Defense Intelligence Agency
(DIA) for maximum openness.
I wish to express my appreciation to the members of the committee for their contributions to the
preparation of this report.
Conventional approaches to health in poor countries focus on disease–speciﬁc
interventions and their cost effectiveness, implemented via the path of least
resistance with a strong emphasis on short term results. The upshot is that sys-
temic problems which underlie poor health, failing health systems, and health
inequity are circumvented. Long–term, sustainable strategies are rarely devel-
oped or deployed. The crisis may change its spots, expressing itself in different
diseases, populations or geographic areas, but it essentially continues unabated.
A number of OECD countries experienced an environment of low interest rates and a rapid increase in
housing market activity during the last decade. Previous work suggests three potential explanations for
these events: expansionary monetary policy, capital inflows due to a global savings glut and excessive
financial innovation combined with inappropriately lax financial regulation. In this study we examine
the effects of these three factors on the housing market.
It is a pleasure to welcome you to this fascinating course: Successful Project
Management. We believe that everyone engages in a project of one type or another,
but not all of us take time to get information about best ways to manage the project
before it begins. The aim of this training course is, therefore, to help you open up
new horizons so that you can harness your full potential in managing a personal
project or that of the organisation you work for. Although focus is on distance
education (DE) project management, there are generic principles that apply to...
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has been famously characterized by
David Sackett as the “conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current
best evidence in making decisions about individual care.” The central
in EBM of the importance of integrating individual clinical expertise
with the best available external evidence provides a helpful framework for
providers navigating the uncertainty inherent in patient care.
The original objective of this study is to scan the internet and other information technology sources to identify
innovative marketing techniques that have been attempted to date by, in and surrounding the public
transportation industry, and to solicit ideas for more unconventional applications that transit agencies and TDM
professionals can consider. The investigation led to the uses, applications, marketing and communications
potential of social media for the public transportation and Transportation Demand Management industries.
Before you start trying to decide whether your idea is correct, you should stop to ask
whether it is interesting. If it isn't interesting, no one will care whether it is correct or not.
So try it out on a few people|see if they think that it is worth pursuing. What would
follow from this idea if it is correct? Would it have lots of implications or would it just be
a dead end? Always remember that working on this particular idea has an opportunity
cost|you could be spending your time working on a dierent idea. Make sure that the
expected benets cover that opportunity cost....
Because this is the first exploratory study of this important question, we do not
pretend to have the final answers. The monetary estimates presented in this report
represent only part of the full economic costs of health inequalities, and the potential
benefits of reducing these inequalities. It is likely that a strong economic case for
reducing health inequalities can be made.
In recent years there has been growing attention to the potential economic benefits of
improvements in population health. This is far from new: historically, one of the
origins of the public health movement lies in the awareness that the prosperity of
nations is partly dependent on the health of their populations.
The Ethiopian Boran breed is one of the cattle breeds widely used in Ethiopia. The breed
is well adapted to semi-arid tropical conditions, has a high degree of heat tolerance, is
tolerant to many of the diseases prevailing in the tropics and has the ability to survive
long periods of feed and water shortage (Ojango et al. 2006). These properties have
genetic basis and have been acquired by natural and human selection over generations.
They are all essential for successful animal production in the tropics.