In this chapter: Distinguish primary from secondary income distribution, understand the redistributive impact of the budget on secondary income distribution, explain the calculation of a Gini coefficient, identify the excess burden of a subsidy, show how a subsidy could be welfare-enhancing if there are positive externalities associated with consumption of certain goods (e.g. Food for the poor),...
Adolescents exposed to the interventions in Site B were more likely to support use of
contraceptives by unmarried adolescents than those in Site A, and a similar pattern was
seen for contraceptive use by married adolescents. Adolescents who were exposed to the
intervention showed more favorable attitudes regarding use of condoms by unmarried
adolescents than the non-exposed in both Site A and B. The analysis also revealed a
more positive attitude towards health facilities for contraceptive and STI services
compared with pharmacies as a source of supplies and services.
The author would like to express his deep appreciation to Dr. Todd F. Shupe for his
guidance and assistance throughout the course of this study. He will always be grateful to
Dr. Shupe’s scientific advice, detailed assistance, and kind encouragement.
The author would always like to express his sincere gratitude to Dr. Chung Y. Hse for his
untiring guidance on experimental design and assistance throughout the duration of this
project. His keen love to science always inspires the author for the future study.
The coincidence of multiple inequities in health—and as an interlinked concept, the
multifaceted nature of poverty—make for a very complex field. Those living at the margins of
society suffer numerous and overlapping inequities in health, in voice, in agency, in living
conditions. Often, their poverty and ill health keep them in a life of perpetual quicksand. Just as
an intervention might spare a child from malaria only to have her die a year later of measles, a
policy change in the health sector might be successful in eliminating one source of inequity (e.g.
access to care)...
Document scope and organisation: For the purposes of BAT information exchange the
organic chemical industry has been divided into sectors for ‘Large Volume Organic Chemicals’,
‘Polymers’ and ‘Fine Organic Chemicals’. The IPPC directive does not use the term ‘Large
Volume Organic Chemicals’ and so offers no assistance in its definition. The TWG
interpretation, however, is that it covers those activities in sections 4.1(a) to 4.1(g) of Annex 1
to the Directive with a production rate of more than 100 kt/yr. In Europe, some 90 organic
chemicals meet these criteria.
As the roles progress from accounting operations to management support, the amount of value added
to the organisation and the contribution made by management accountants generally increases. Roles
in management information systems work across the others, supporting these functions.
At the same time, we analysed the results of our survey geographically, in particular looking for
differences in how the roles of financial professionals are evolving in the east and west.
Public comment is sought to help inform the Working Group in shaping its
recommendations for enhanced industry self-regulatory efforts as part of a report requested
by Congress. Comments are not being requested as the basis for regulation. The
recommendations include principles addressing the nutritional quality of foods that are most
heavily marketed to children. They also include proposed definitions of advertising,
promotion, and other marketing activities targeting children ages 2-11 years and adolescents
ages 12-17 years to which the nutrition principles would apply.
Banks thus planned to meet their shortfalls predominantly through capital
measures, and some made progress in spite of unfavourable market
conditions. Low share prices, as at present, cause a strong dilution effect,
drawing resistance from incumbent shareholders and management.
experience of UniCredit, whose deeply discounted €7.5 billion rights issue led
to a 45% (albeit transient) plunge in its share price, deterred other banks from
following suit. Capital can also be built through retained earnings, debt-to-
equity conversion or redemption below par.
In the following, we identify the unique subgame perfect equilibrium of
the sequential game described above. Furthermore, government’s regulation
is shown to reduce the diversity in the programs oﬀered by the channels at
equilibrium: the lower the upperlimit imposed by the government to the ad-
vertising rate, the weaker the diversity in the programs!
There are at least three papers closely related to the present analysis.
Vaglio (1995) proposes a Hotelling-type model of the audience for TV-
broadcasting which shares several properties with ours.
Made up of 11 chapters, this authoritative volume explores poverty and labour market issues over the first decade of democracy in South Africa. It is an attempt by leading South African scholars, supplemented by the work of international scholars working on South Africa, to take stock of the first post-apartheid decade, to assess the evolution of poverty, inequality, human needs and unemployment, and to relate this evolution to the policy stances and interventions of the first government elected freely by all South Africans.
These three developments—globalization, technological advances, and deregulation—
spell endless opportunities. But what is marketing and what does it have to do
with these issues?
Marketing deals with identifying and meeting human and social needs. One of
the shortest definitions of marketing is “meeting needs profitably.
Since the 1980s, the food and beverage industry has made children and adolescents the targets
of intense and specialized food marketing and advertising efforts. The proliferation of
electronic media, the deregulation of and declining support for public service advertising, and
the booming economy of the 1990s all contributed to the transformation of children into a
consumer group (Packaged Facts, 2000). In addition, the overabundance of certain foods in the
U.S. food supply (such as corn and grains) along with decreased food production costs, allows
Why is the market share of accounting measures shrinking,
and can cross-sectional differences in the extent of shrinkage be
explained? Has the information content of accounting
information itself deteriorated, or should we look to more
fundamental changes in the economic environment? For
example, Milliron (2000) documents a significant shift over the
past twenty years in board characteristics measuring director
accountability, independence, and effectiveness consistent with
a general increase in directors’ incentive alignment with
The mystery shopping identifies potentially significant failings in the PPI sales
processes of some firms. Several of the firms shopped did not comply with the
specific regulatory requirements in ICOB or treating their customers fairly when
undertaking these transactions.
The mystery shopping results highlight standards of behaviour that fall below our
expectations and raise questions about firms’ systems and controls. They may also
indicate failures in the quality of staff training and competence.
Ensure that system and network administrators are trained and capable. Security testing must be
performed by capable and trained staff. Often, individuals recruited for this task are already involved in
system administration. While system administration is an increasingly complex task, the numbers of
trained system administrators generally has not kept pace with the increase in computing systems.
The state-of-the-art infrastructure facility at IIFT
includes well equipped computer centre which
caters to the students and faculty member's specific
requirements. Most of the activities which require IT
support revolve around the training and research
The computer labs for the students are open 24
hours wi th adequate number of desktop
connections. This facility also houses the provision
to conduct online assessment activities ...
Over the past 30 years, environmental policies and related reporting activities adopted by OECD countries have
steadily evolved. This evolution has been largely driven by increased public awareness of environmental issues, their
international aspects and their linkages with economic and social issues. Initially the demand for environmental
information was closely related to the definition and implementation of environmental policies and their effects on the
state of the environment.
My reflections and perspective were also based on other important parts of ray own political
experience: the preceding work of the Brandt Commission on North South issues, and the
Palme Commission on security and disarmament issues, on which I served.
I was being asked to help formulate a third and compelling call for political action: After
Brandt's Programme for Survival and Common Crisis, and after Palme's Common Security,
would come Common Future. This was my message when Vice Chairman Mansour Khalid and
I started work on the ambitious task set up by the United Nations.
The bottom line of the table grosses up the numbers
for industry totals, by assuming that 80% is covered by the
top 10 firms. For the margin lending we assume 75% is
covered by member of the NYSE.
The main point to note is that counterparty exposure
differs considerably between the prime brokers, with higher
risk-taking firms (to generate higher returns) showing high
exposures relative to tier 1 capital, and more conservative
firms showing much lower ratios. The total exposure of the
top 10 firms is about USD 2.9 trillion, and total Tier 1
capital is around...
In multiple-tier markets, stock exchange operators have also supported the
transition of companies from less regulated compartments for small cap
companies to their main markets, in a number of instances providing assistance
to companies adopting the required higher governance standards. For instance,
the TSX facilitates the transition of companies from its Venture Exchange
main market, which features higher governance requirements.