Xem 1-20 trên 57 kết quả Poverty and inequity
  • In this chapter: Distinguish primary from secondary income distribution, understand the redistributive impact of the budget on secondary income distribution, explain the calculation of a Gini coefficient, identify the excess burden of a subsidy, show how a subsidy could be welfare-enhancing if there are positive externalities associated with consumption of certain goods (e.g. Food for the poor),...

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  • Adolescents exposed to the interventions in Site B were more likely to support use of contraceptives by unmarried adolescents than those in Site A, and a similar pattern was seen for contraceptive use by married adolescents. Adolescents who were exposed to the intervention showed more favorable attitudes regarding use of condoms by unmarried adolescents than the non-exposed in both Site A and B. The analysis also revealed a more positive attitude towards health facilities for contraceptive and STI services compared with pharmacies as a source of supplies and services.

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  • The author would like to express his deep appreciation to Dr. Todd F. Shupe for his guidance and assistance throughout the course of this study. He will always be grateful to Dr. Shupe’s scientific advice, detailed assistance, and kind encouragement. The author would always like to express his sincere gratitude to Dr. Chung Y. Hse for his untiring guidance on experimental design and assistance throughout the duration of this project. His keen love to science always inspires the author for the future study. Dr.

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  • The coincidence of multiple inequities in health—and as an interlinked concept, the multifaceted nature of poverty—make for a very complex field. Those living at the margins of society suffer numerous and overlapping inequities in health, in voice, in agency, in living conditions. Often, their poverty and ill health keep them in a life of perpetual quicksand. Just as an intervention might spare a child from malaria only to have her die a year later of measles, a policy change in the health sector might be successful in eliminating one source of inequity (e.g. access to care)...

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  • Document scope and organisation: For the purposes of BAT information exchange the organic chemical industry has been divided into sectors for ‘Large Volume Organic Chemicals’, ‘Polymers’ and ‘Fine Organic Chemicals’. The IPPC directive does not use the term ‘Large Volume Organic Chemicals’ and so offers no assistance in its definition. The TWG interpretation, however, is that it covers those activities in sections 4.1(a) to 4.1(g) of Annex 1 to the Directive with a production rate of more than 100 kt/yr. In Europe, some 90 organic chemicals meet these criteria.

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  • As the roles progress from accounting operations to management support, the amount of value added to the organisation and the contribution made by management accountants generally increases. Roles in management information systems work across the others, supporting these functions. At the same time, we analysed the results of our survey geographically, in particular looking for differences in how the roles of financial professionals are evolving in the east and west.

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  • Public comment is sought to help inform the Working Group in shaping its recommendations for enhanced industry self-regulatory efforts as part of a report requested by Congress. Comments are not being requested as the basis for regulation. The recommendations include principles addressing the nutritional quality of foods that are most heavily marketed to children. They also include proposed definitions of advertising, promotion, and other marketing activities targeting children ages 2-11 years and adolescents ages 12-17 years to which the nutrition principles would apply.

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  • Banks thus planned to meet their shortfalls predominantly through capital measures, and some made progress in spite of unfavourable market conditions. Low share prices, as at present, cause a strong dilution effect, drawing resistance from incumbent shareholders and management. 4 The experience of UniCredit, whose deeply discounted €7.5 billion rights issue led to a 45% (albeit transient) plunge in its share price, deterred other banks from following suit. Capital can also be built through retained earnings, debt-to- equity conversion or redemption below par.

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  • In the following, we identify the unique subgame perfect equilibrium of the sequential game described above. Furthermore, government’s regulation is shown to reduce the diversity in the programs offered by the channels at equilibrium: the lower the upperlimit imposed by the government to the ad- vertising rate, the weaker the diversity in the programs! There are at least three papers closely related to the present analysis. Vaglio (1995) proposes a Hotelling-type model of the audience for TV- broadcasting which shares several properties with ours.

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  • Made up of 11 chapters, this authoritative volume explores poverty and labour market issues over the first decade of democracy in South Africa. It is an attempt by leading South African scholars, supplemented by the work of international scholars working on South Africa, to take stock of the first post-apartheid decade, to assess the evolution of poverty, inequality, human needs and unemployment, and to relate this evolution to the policy stances and interventions of the first government elected freely by all South Africans.

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  • These three developments—globalization, technological advances, and deregulation— spell endless opportunities. But what is marketing and what does it have to do with these issues? Marketing deals with identifying and meeting human and social needs. One of the shortest definitions of marketing is “meeting needs profitably.

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  • Since the 1980s, the food and beverage industry has made children and adolescents the targets of intense and specialized food marketing and advertising efforts. The proliferation of electronic media, the deregulation of and declining support for public service advertising, and the booming economy of the 1990s all contributed to the transformation of children into a consumer group (Packaged Facts, 2000). In addition, the overabundance of certain foods in the U.S. food supply (such as corn and grains) along with decreased food production costs, allows food...

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  • Why is the market share of accounting measures shrinking, and can cross-sectional differences in the extent of shrinkage be explained? Has the information content of accounting information itself deteriorated, or should we look to more fundamental changes in the economic environment? For example, Milliron (2000) documents a significant shift over the past twenty years in board characteristics measuring director accountability, independence, and effectiveness consistent with a general increase in directors’ incentive alignment with shareholders’ interests.

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  • The mystery shopping identifies potentially significant failings in the PPI sales processes of some firms. Several of the firms shopped did not comply with the specific regulatory requirements in ICOB or treating their customers fairly when undertaking these transactions. The mystery shopping results highlight standards of behaviour that fall below our expectations and raise questions about firms’ systems and controls. They may also indicate failures in the quality of staff training and competence.

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  • Ensure that system and network administrators are trained and capable. Security testing must be performed by capable and trained staff. Often, individuals recruited for this task are already involved in system administration. While system administration is an increasingly complex task, the numbers of trained system administrators generally has not kept pace with the increase in computing systems.

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  • The state-of-the-art infrastructure facility at IIFT includes well equipped computer centre which caters to the students and faculty member's specific requirements. Most of the activities which require IT support revolve around the training and research activities pursuits. The computer labs for the students are open 24 hours wi th adequate number of desktop connections. This facility also houses the provision to conduct online assessment activities ...

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  • Over the past 30 years, environmental policies and related reporting activities adopted by OECD countries have steadily evolved. This evolution has been largely driven by increased public awareness of environmental issues, their international aspects and their linkages with economic and social issues. Initially the demand for environmental information was closely related to the definition and implementation of environmental policies and their effects on the state of the environment.

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  • My reflections and perspective were also based on other important parts of ray own political experience: the preceding work of the Brandt Commission on North South issues, and the Palme Commission on security and disarmament issues, on which I served. I was being asked to help formulate a third and compelling call for political action: After Brandt's Programme for Survival and Common Crisis, and after Palme's Common Security, would come Common Future. This was my message when Vice Chairman Mansour Khalid and I started work on the ambitious task set up by the United Nations.

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  • The bottom line of the table grosses up the numbers for industry totals, by assuming that 80% is covered by the top 10 firms. For the margin lending we assume 75% is covered by member of the NYSE. The main point to note is that counterparty exposure differs considerably between the prime brokers, with higher risk-taking firms (to generate higher returns) showing high exposures relative to tier 1 capital, and more conservative firms showing much lower ratios. The total exposure of the top 10 firms is about USD 2.9 trillion, and total Tier 1 capital is around...

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  • In multiple-tier markets, stock exchange operators have also supported the transition of companies from less regulated compartments for small cap companies to their main markets, in a number of instances providing assistance to companies adopting the required higher governance standards. For instance, the TSX facilitates the transition of companies from its Venture Exchange 22 to its main market, which features higher governance requirements.

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