Studying grammar will only slow you down and confuse you. You will think about the rules when creating sentences instead of naturally saying a sentence like a native. Remember that only a small fraction of English speakers know more than 20% of all the grammar rules. Many ESL students know more grammar than native speakers. I can confidently say this with experience. I am a native English speaker, majored in English Literature, and have been teaching English for more than 10 years. However, many of my students know more details about English grammar than I do. I can easily...
Fusing translation theory with advice and information about the practicalities of translating, Becoming a Translator is an essential resource for novice and practising translators. The book helps students learn how to translate faster and more accurately, how to deal with potential problems, including dealing with stress and how the market works.
Professional references for your English IELTS preparation. IELTS stands for International English Language Testing letters System (System test International English Language). The reason for this is the examination system for the universities in the English-speaking countries like USA, UK, Australia, New Zealand, Canada ... is used in English translation, so the first requirement is the student enrollment must achieve certain level of English to be able to listen to lectures, reading assignments, homework and participate in other educational activities.
Talk a Lot - Spoken English Course - Book 3References for teachers, students explore study and review materials for English learning. This document provides you with useful knowledge to help you reinforce knowledge and training ability to learn and speak English better.
Talk a Lot - Spoken English Course - Book 1 References for teachers, students explore study and review materials for English learning. This document provides you with useful knowledge to help you reinforce knowledge and training ability to learn and speak English better.
English Banana.com is a British publisher of educational materials for teaching and learning English, including the hugely popular Talk a Lot Spoken English Course books. All of our materials are freely available to download from this site, and also from Scribd, CNET, and iTunes. Our unique free licences allow anybody to make a profit with our materials - without paying any commission or fees!
Most statistical machine translation systems rely on composed rules (rules that can be formed out of smaller rules in the grammar). Though this practice improves translation by weakening independence assumptions in the translation model, it nevertheless results in huge, redundant grammars, making both training and decoding ineﬃcient. Here, we take the opposite approach, where we only use minimal rules (those that cannot be formed out of other rules), and instead rely on a rule Markov model of the derivation history to capture dependencies between minimal rules. ...
To address the parse error issue for tree-tostring translation, this paper proposes a similarity-based decoding generation (SDG) solution by reconstructing similar source parse trees for decoding at the decoding time instead of taking multiple source parse trees as input for decoding. Experiments on Chinese-English translation demonstrated that our approach can achieve a significant improvement over the standard method, and has little impact on decoding speed in practice.
An increasing number of universities in Vietnam have added courses in translation to their
curricula; however, the textbooks available for such courses are few. This unit has been
written with these courses in mind.
The aim of this book is to illuminate the essential activity of translation from a number of
perspectives: historical and contemporary, theoretical and practical. At the same time, the
contents of the present volume speak in many modes and voices to literary and cultural
history, and to cross-cultural relations through the ages.The book draws on several
hundred texts, translations, and texts about translation, ranging from classical antiquity to the present.
Unit One SCIENCE
Science (Latin scientia, from scire, “to know”), is the term which is used, in its broadest meaning to denote systematized knowledge in any field, but applied usually to the organization of objectively verifiable sense experience. The pursuit of knowledge in this context is known as pure science, to distinguish it from applied science, which is the search for practical uses of scientific knowledge, and from technology, through which applications are realized. Knowledge of nature originally was largely an undifferentiated observation and interrelation of experiences.
Scientists still do not know exactly what causes the earth’s magnetic field. In the 16th century, it was believed that a mountain of magnetite (a magnetic mineral) was located at the North Pole and that this mountain caused the earth’s magnetic field. English physician William Gilbert was the first to propose, in 1600, that the earth itself was a massive magnet. Current theories hold that the earth’s magnetic field is created by currents within the liquid outer core of the earth, which is composed mostly of iron.
This translation theory course is designed to meet the needs of students of English in their final years of study at the Department of Continuing Education, Danang Teachers’ College. It is hoped that learners will find the course useful and practical.
Inventive Thinking through TRIZ
.Michael A. Orloff
Inventive Thinking through TRIZ
A Practical Guide
With 232 Figures
.Author Professor Dr. Dr. Sc. techn. Michael Orloff
Modern TRIZ Academy International Europe-Center D- 10789 Berlin Germany e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org www.modern-triz-academy.com
Library of Congress Control Number: 2006923236
ISBN-10 3-540-33222-7 Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York ISBN-13 978-3-540-33222-0 Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York
This work is subject to copyright.
In the following pages I have attempted to trace certain developments in the theory of translation as it has
been formulated by English writers. I have confined myself, of necessity, to such opinions as have been put
into words, and avoided making use of deductions from practice other than a few obvious and generally accepted conclusions.
The dominant practice of statistical machine translation (SMT) uses the same Chinese word segmentation specification in both alignment and translation rule induction steps in building Chinese-English SMT system, which may suffer from a suboptimal problem that word segmentation better for alignment is not necessarily better for translation.
This paper describes a method of interactively visualizing and directing the process of translating a sentence. The method allows a user to explore a model of syntax-based statistical machine translation (MT), to understand the model’s strengths and weaknesses, and to compare it to other MT systems. Using this visualization method, we can ﬁnd and address conceptual and practical problems in an MT system. In our demonstration at ACL, new users of our tool will drive a syntaxbased decoder for themselves.
We show that a practical translation of MRS descriptions into normal dominance constraints is feasible. We start from a recent theoretical translation and verify its assumptions on the outputs of the English Resource Grammar (ERG) on the Redwoods corpus. The main assumption of the translation— that all relevant underspeciﬁed descriptions are nets—is validated for a large majority of cases; all non-nets computed by the ERG seem to be systematically incomplete.