Pragmatics

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  • Ngữ dụng học (Pragmatic Linguistics) là tài liệu góp phần giải thích và chứng minh về thuật ngữ "Ngữ dụng học" là được dùng để dịch Pragmatic Linguistics. Mời các bạn cùng tham khảo tài liệu để nắm rõ nội dung hơn.

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  • Pragmatic programmers use feedback to drive their development and personal processes. The most valuable feedback you can get while coding comes from unit testing. Now in it's second edition, Pragmatic Unit Testing in C# with NUnit, 2nd Ed. will show you how to do software unit testing, of course, but more importantly will show you what to test.

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  • This book will be the catalyst for your future. Patrick Elder Agile Software Developer By following Andy’s concrete steps, you can make your most precious asset—your brain—more efficient and productive. Read this book, and do what Andy tells you to do. You’ll think smarter, work better, and learn more than ever before. Bert Bates Cocreator of Head First, Brain Friendly Books I’ve always been looking for something to help me improve my learning skills, but I’ve never found anything as effective as this book.

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  • Semantics is the study of the “toolkit” for meaning: knowledge encoded in the vocabulary of the language and in its patterns for building more elaborate meanings, up to the level of sentence meanings. Pragmatics is concerned with the use of these tools in meaningful communication. Pragmatics is about the interaction of semantic knowledge with our knowledge of the world, taking into account contexts of use. The following is part 2 of the ebook "An introduction to English Semantics and Pragmatics", inviting you to refer.

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  • This is a book about how English enables people who know the language to convey meanings. Semantics and pragmatics are the two main branches of the linguistic study of meaning. Both are named in the title of the book and they are going to be introduced here. This book is divided into 2 parts, the following is part 1 of the book. Inviting you to refer.

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  • CSS is fundamental to the web, but it's a basic language and lacks many features. Sass is just like CSS, but with a whole lot of extra power so you can get more done, more quickly. Build better web pages today with Pragmatic Guide to Sass. These concise, easy-to-digest tips and techniques are the shortcuts experienced CSS developers need to start developing in Sass today.

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  • I expected a lot, but you surprised me with even more. Having used CVS for years I hesitated to try Subversion until now, although I knew it would solve many of the shortcomings of CVS. After reading your book, my excuses to stay with CVS disappeared. Oh, and coming from the Pragmatic Bookshelf this book is fun to read too. Thanks Mike. Steffen Gemkow Managing Director, ObjectFab GmbH I’m a long-time user of CVS and I’ve been skeptical of Subversion, wondering if it would ever be “ready for prime time.” Until now. Thanks to Mike Mason for writing a clear,...

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  • .What Readers Are Saying About Pragmatic Guide to JavaScript I wish I had owned this book when I first started out doing JavaScript! Pragmatic Guide to JavaScript will take you a big step ahead in programming real-world JavaScript by showing you what is going on behind the scenes in popular JavaScript libraries and giving you no-nonsense advice and background information on how to do the right thing. With the condensed years of experience of one of the best JavaScript developers around, it’s a mustread with great reference to everyday JavaScript tasks. Thomas Fuchs Creator of the script.

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  • Pragmatic Version Control Using Git is an excellent guide to getting you started with Git. It will teach you not only how to get yourself started but also how to cooperate with others and how to keep your history clean. Pieter de Bie Author, GitX If you are thinking of using Git, I highly recommend this book. If you are not using a version control system

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  • Others, including earlier versions of our system, bury discourse functions inside other modules, such as natural language interpretation or the back-end interface. An innovation of this work is the compartmentalization of discourse processing into three generically definable components--Dialogue Management, Context Tracking, and Pragmatic Adaptation (described in Section 1 below)--and the software control structure for interaction between these and other components of a spoken dialogue system (Section 2).

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  • Where has this book been all my life?! Mike Clark’s clear, concise, and fun style has me on the edge of my seat eager to find out what trick is next. His CruiseControl RSS publisher is already in action on my projects, and even more of these gems are working their way into my routine. Lava Lamps and Groovy—the hippest software book ever! Erik Hatcher, Co-author of Java Development with Ant and Lucene in Action From the minute I learned about the Pragmatic Starter Kit, this book was the one I was most eager to read. ...

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  • We report on a mechanism for semantic and pragmatic interpretation that has been designed to take advantage of the generally compositional nature of semantic analysis, without unduly constraining the order in which pragmatic decisions are made. To achieve this goal, we introduce the idea of a conditional interpretation: one that depends upon a set of assumptions about subsequent pragmatic processing. Conditional interpretations are constructed compositionally according to a set of declaratively specified interpretation rules.

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  • This paper describes the NECA MNLG; a fully implemented Multimodal Natural Language Generation module. The MNLG is deployed as part of the NECA system which generates dialogues between animated agents. The generation module supports the seamless integration of full grammar rules, templates and canned text. The generator takes input which allows for the specification of syntactic, semantic and pragmatic constraints on the output.

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  • We present a model of semantic processing of spoken language that (a) is robust against ill-formed input, such as can be expected from automatic speech recognisers, (b) respects both syntactic and pragmatic constraints in the computation of most likely interpretations, (c) uses a principled, expressive semantic representation formalism (RMRS) with a well-defined model theory, and (d) works continuously (producing meaning representations on a wordby-word basis, rather than only for full utterances) and incrementally (computing only the additional contribution by the new word, rather than ...

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  • We describe a formal framework for interpretation of words and compounds in a discourse context which integrates a symbolic lexicon/grammar, word-sense probabilities, and a pragmatic component. The approach is motivated by the need to handle productive word use. In this paper, we concentrate on compound nominals. We discuss the inadequacies of approaches which consider compound interpretation as either wholly lexico-grammatical or wholly pragmatic, and provide an alternative integrated account. ...

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  • We use machine learners trained on a combination of acoustic confidence and pragmatic plausibility features computed from dialogue context to predict the accuracy of incoming n-best recognition hypotheses to a spoken dialogue system. Our best results show a 25% weighted f-score improvement over a baseline system that implements a “grammar-switching” approach to context-sensitive speech recognition.

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  • We describe a statistical approach for modeling agreements and disagreements in conversational interaction. Our approach first identifies adjacency pairs using maximum entropy ranking based on a set of lexical, durational, and structural features that look both forward and backward in the discourse. We then classify utterances as agreement or disagreement using these adjacency pairs and features that represent various pragmatic influences of previous agreement or disagreement on the current utterance. ...

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  • 1 Efficient natural language generation has been successfully demonstrated using highly compiled knowledge about speech acts and their related social actions. A design and prototype implementation of a parser which utilizes this same pragmatic knowledge to efficiently guide parsing is presented. Such guidance is shown to prune the search space and thus avoid needless processing of pragmatically unlikely constituent structures.

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  • Drawing appropriate defeasible inferences has been proven to be one of the most pervasive puzzles of natural language processing and a recurrent problem in pragmatics. This paper provides a theoretical framework, called stratified logic, that can accommodate defeasible pragmatic inferences. The framework yields an algorithm that computes the conversational, conventional, scalar, clausal, and normal state implicatures; and the presuppositions that are associated with utterances. The algorithm applies equally to simple and complex utterances and sequences of utterances. ...

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  • Model-theoretic pragmatics is an attempt to provide a formal description of the pragmatics of natural language as effects arising from using model-theoretic semantics in a dynamic environment. The pragmatic phenomena considered here have been variously labeled ~resupposition [I] and eonven¢ional implicature [6]. The models used in traditional model-theoretic semantics provide a complete and static representation of knowledge about the world, llowever, this is not the environment in which language is used. ...

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