Precise measurement

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  • Thermal noise from optical coatings is a growing area of concern, and overcoming limits to the sensitivity of high-precision measurements by thermal noise is one of the greatest challenges faced by experimental physicists. In this timely book, internationally renowned scientists and engineers examine our current theoretical and experimental understanding. Beginning with the theory of thermal noise in mirrors and substrates, subsequent chapters discuss the technology of depositing coatings and state-of-the-art dielectric coating techniques used in precision measurement.

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  • This book provides a current overview of the theoretical and experimental aspects of some interferometry techniques applied to Topography and Astronomy. The first two chapters comprise interferometry techniques used for precise measurement of surface topography in engineering applications; while chapters three through eight are dedicated to interferometry applications related to Earth's topography. The last chapter is an application of interferometry in Astronomy, directed specifically to detection of planets outside our solar system.

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  • To facilitate the use of syntactic information in the study of child language acquisition, a coding scheme for Grammatical Relations (GRs) in transcripts of parent-child dialogs has been proposed by Sagae, MacWhinney and Lavie (2004). We discuss the use of current NLP techniques to produce the GRs in this annotation scheme. By using a statistical parser (Charniak, 2000) and memorybased learning tools for classification (Daelemans et al., 2004), we obtain high precision and recall of several GRs. ...

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  • In this paper, we study different centrality measures being used in predicting noun phrases appearing in the abstracts of scientific articles. Our experimental results show that centrality measures improve the accuracy of the prediction in terms of both precision and recall. We also found that the method of constructing Noun Phrase Network significantly influences the accuracy when using the centrality heuristics itself, but is negligible when it is used together with other text features in decision trees. ...

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  • The main goal of this paper is to propose automatic schemes for the translation paired comparison method. This method was proposed to precisely evaluate a speech translation system's capability. Furthermore, the method gives an objective evaluation result, i.e., a score of the Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC). The TOEIC score is used as a measure of one's speech translation capability. However, this method requires tremendous evaluation costs. Accordingly, automatization of this method is an important subject for study.

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  • We evaluate measures of contextual fitness on the task of detecting real-word spelling errors. For that purpose, we extract naturally occurring errors and their contexts from the Wikipedia revision history. We show that such natural errors are better suited for evaluation than the previously used artificially created errors. In particular, the precision of statistical methods has been largely over-estimated, while the precision of knowledge-based approaches has been under-estimated.

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  • We introduce the possibility of combining lexical association measures and present empirical results of several methods employed in automatic collocation extraction. First, we present a comprehensive summary overview of association measures and their performance on manually annotated data evaluated by precision-recall graphs and mean average precision. Second, we describe several classification methods for combining association measures, followed by their evaluation and comparison with individual measures. ...

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  • We present a new approach to stochastic modeling of constraintbased grammars that is based on loglinear models and uses EM for estimation from unannotated data. The techniques are applied to an LFG grammar for German. Evaluation on an exact match task yields 86% precision for an ambiguity rate of 5.4, and 90% precision on a subcat frame match for an ambiguity rate of 25. Experimental comparison to training from a parsebank shows a 10% gain from EM training.

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  • This paper qualifies what a true termrecognition systems would have to recognize. The exact bracketing of the maximal termform is then proposed as an achieveable goal upon which current system performance should be measured. How recall and precision metrics are best adapted for measuring term recognition is suggested. derlying premises should be made clear. Firstly, the automatic system is designed to recognize segments of text that, conventionally, have been manually identified by a terminologist, indexer, lexicographer or other trained individual.

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  • Traditionally supply chain management has meant factories, assembly lines, warehouses, transportation vehicles, and time sheets. Modern supply chain management is a highly complex, multidimensional problem set with virtually endless number of variables for optimization. An Internet enabled supply chain may have just-in-time delivery, precise inventory visibility, and up-to-the-minute distribution-tracking capabilities.

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  • Titration is a versatile analytical procedure that can be used for a wide variety of chemical analyses. For example, when your town’s water supply is tested for purity, or pond water is tested for dissolved oxygen and contaminants, chances are a titration is carried out. Some tests essential for a medical diagnosis require a titration of various body fluids. A titration makes use of a known reaction between two chemicals. A solution of unknown concentration is reacted with a precisely measured amount of another chemical.

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  • Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) plays a key role in high precision navigation, positioning, timing, and scientific questions related to precise positioning. This is a highly precise, continuous, all-weather, and real-time technique. The book is devoted to presenting recent results and developments in GNSS theory, system, signal, receiver, method, and errors sources, such as multipath effects and atmospheric delays

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  • Precision measurement of structures in the micrometer and sub-micrometer ranges is becoming more and more important. Because of the never-ending miniaturization it is central to the precision of production and metrology of microelectronics and micromechanics, but also to the measurement of the size distribution of microparticles, for example, in environmental protection. A number of measuring methods are available to perform these tasks.

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  • The problem with this definition is that the length of the day is not constant as is shown in the figure. For this reason since 1967 the second is defined as the time taken by 9192631770 light oscillations of a particular wavelength emitted by a cesium-133 atom. This definition is so precise that it would take two cesium clocks 6000 years before their readings would differ more than 1 second.

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  • Gaps in knowledge were detected in the course of this review. These are summarized in the following section, which also suggests directions for further investigation. Further study and regular dietary monitoring are needed in order to know more about food consumption habits in seniors. These investigations must be adapted to the reality of targeted aging populations using precise measurements, diverse approaches, appropriate methods and accurate dietary assessment tools to reflect the great heterogeneity typical of older populations.

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  • The accuracy of a machined part depends on the precision motion delivered by a machine tool under static, dynamic, and thermal loads. The accuracy is evaluated by measuring the discrepancy between the desired part dimensions identified on a part drawing and the actual part achieved after machining operations.

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  • It is important to establish at the outset of a project, a precise definition of the purpose and scope of the project to ensure that both Business Partners and Technical personnel are clear about the field of reference. Any project carried out by an organization should be addressing one or more of the Business Objectives of the organization. If it does not, why is the project being carried out? Therefore to establish the objectives and scope of the project, it is first necessary to identify the overall reason for the project by relating it to one or more objectives of the organization.

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  • International competition and ever improving technology have forced manufacturers to increase quality as well as productivity. Often the improvement of quality is realized via the enhancement of production system precision. This chapter discusses some of the basic concepts in precision system design including

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  • The dramatic expansion of intellectual property rights represents a new stage in commodification that threatens to make virtually everything bad about capitalism even worse. Stronger intellectual property rights will reinforce class differences, undermine science and technology, speed up the corporatization of the university, inundate society in legal disputes, and reduce personal freedoms. We have no precise measure of the extent of intellectual property, but a rough calculation by Marjorie Kelly suggests the magnitude of intellectual property rights.

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  • Each essay is scored using a scoring guide that defines levels of performance. The essay will be read by one member of the CSU English faculty. The scores range from a high of 6 to a low of 0. Students must write on the assigned topic, demonstrate an understanding of the reading passage, and support their generalizations with specific reasons and examples. Such matters as clarity of thought, fluency, careful organization, development of ideas, and the use of clear and precise language all have an important influence upon the score given by each reader. A different...

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