Predicate language

Xem 1-20 trên 36 kết quả Predicate language
  • Some considerations are presented regarding certain aspects of automatically translating Russian predicative infinitives into English. Emphasis is placed on the analysis (decoding) of the pertinent infinitive constructions in the source language rather than on the synthesis (encoding) of their equivalents in the target language.

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  • This paper presents a predicate-argument structure analysis that simultaneously conducts zero-anaphora resolution. By adding noun phrases as candidate arguments that are not only in the sentence of the target predicate but also outside of the sentence, our analyzer identifies arguments regardless of whether they appear in the sentence or not. Because we adopt discriminative models based on maximum entropy for argument identification, we can easily add new features. We add language model scores as well as contextual features.

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  • The model used by the CCG parser of Hockenmaier and Steedman (2002b) would fail to capture the correct bilexical dependencies in a language with freer word order, such as Dutch. This paper argues that probabilistic parsers should therefore model the dependencies in the predicate-argument structure, as in the model of Clark et al. (2002), and defines a generative model for CCG derivations that captures these dependencies, including bounded and unbounded long-range dependencies.

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  • A sophisticated natural language system requires a large knowledge base. A methodology is described for constructing one in a principled way. Facts are selected for the knowledge base by determining what facts are linguistically presupposed by a text in the domain of interest. The facts are sorted into clnsters, and within each cluster they are organized according to their logical dependencies. Finally, the facts are encoded as predicate calculus axioms.

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  • What do the ¯elds of astronomy, economics, ¯nance, law, mathematics, med- icine, physics, and sociology have in common? Not much in the way of sub- ject matter, that's for sure. And not all that much in the way of methodology. What they do have in common, with each other and with many other ¯elds, is their dependence on a certain standard of rationality.

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  • This book is based on my lecture notes and supervision ( tutorial) notes for the course entitled " Logic Computation and Set Theory" which is lecture in part II(third years) at the Cambridge Mathematics Tripos. The choise material is not mine, but is laid down by the Mathematics Faculty Board having regard to what student have to learned in their first two years.

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  • This book introduces you to the theory of relational databases, focusing on the application of that theory to the design of computer languages that properly embrace it. The book is intended for those studying relational databases as part of a degree course in Information Technology (IT). Relational database theory, originally proposed by Edgar F. Codd in 1969, is a topic in Computer Science. Codd’s seminal paper (1970) was entitled A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks (reference [5] in Appendix B)....

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  • We introduce two Bayesian models for unsupervised semantic role labeling (SRL) task. The models treat SRL as clustering of syntactic signatures of arguments with clusters corresponding to semantic roles. The first model induces these clusterings independently for each predicate, exploiting the Chinese Restaurant Process (CRP) as a prior. In a more refined hierarchical model, we inject the intuition that the clusterings are similar across different predicates, even though they are not necessarily identical.

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  • Ever since Woods's "What's in a Link" paper, there has been a growing concern for formalization in the study of knowledge representation. Several arguments have been made that frame representation languages and semantic-network languages are syntactic variants of the ftrst-order predicate calculus (FOPC). The typical argument proceeds by showing how any given frame or network representation can be mapped to a logically isomorphic FOPC representation.

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  • Existing work in the extraction of commonsense knowledge from text has been primarily restricted to factoids that serve as statements about what may possibly obtain in the world. We present an approach to deriving stronger, more general claims by abstracting over large sets of factoids. Our goal is to coalesce the observed nominals for a given predicate argument into a few predominant types, obtained as WordNet synsets. The results can be construed as generically quantified sentences restricting the semantic type of an argument position of a predicate....

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  • The topic of the paper is the problem how to define case relations by semantic predicates. A general principle is outlined, which renders it possible to "calculate" case relations for a given representation of a (verb-)sememe by means of expressions. This principle is based on an assignment of case relations to primitive predicates and modification rules for nested expressions.

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  • 1.2 Canonical Level This intermediate level of representation usually consists of the verb itself, (or perhaps a more primitive semantic predicate chosen to represent the verb) and a list of possible roles, e.g. arguments to the predicate. These roles correspond loosely to a union of the various semantic types indicated in the schemas. The schemas above could all easily map i n t o : SUPPORTS(l,2, ,).

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  • actions, although~ naturally there are aspects that are common. An important characteristic of these contexts is the predominance of descriptive predicates and verbs (verbs such as "contain," "refer," "consist of," etc.) over action verbs. A direct result of this is that the meaning of the sentence does not depend as much on the main verb of the sentence as on the concepts that make it up. Hence meaning representations centered in the main verb of the sentence are futile for these contexts.

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  • Consideration of the question of meaning in the framework of linguistics often requires an allusion to sets and other higher-order notions. The traditional approach to representing and reasoning about meaning in a computational setting has been to use knowledge representation sys 7 tems that are either based on first-order logic or that use mechanisms whose formal justifications are to be provided after the fact. In this paper we shall consider the use of a higher-order logic for this task. We first present a version of definite clauses (positive Horn clauses) that is based on this logic.

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  • This paper describes a compositional semantics for temporal expressions as part of the meaning representation language (MRL) of the JANUS system, a natural language understanding and generation system under joint development by BBN Laboratoires and the Information Sciences Institute. 1 The analysis is based on a higher order intansional logic described in detail in Hinrichs, Ayuso and Scha (1987). Temporal expressions of English are translated into this language as quantifiers over times which bind temporal indices on predicates.

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  • This paper describes a computational model of concept acquisition for natural language. W e develop a theory of lexical semantics, the Eztended Aspect Calculus, which together with a ~maxkedness theory" for thematic relations, constrains what a possible word meaning can be. This is based on the supposition that predicates from the perceptual domain axe the primitives for more abstract relations. W e then describe an implementation of this model, TULLY, which mirrors the stages of lexical acquisition for children. ...

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  • Theodes of semantic interpretation which wish to capture as many generalizations as possible must face up to the manifoldly ambiguous and contextually dependent nature of word meaning? In this paper I present a two-level scheme of semantic interpretation in which the first level deals with the semantic consequences of'syntactic structure and the second with the choice of word meaning.

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  • "collective" verb. The collective/distributive distinction raises an important issue: how to treat the semantics of plural NPs uniformly. An eadiar paper by Scha ("Distributive, Collective and Cumulative Quantification" [7], hereinafter "DCC") presented a formal treatment of this issue which exploits an idea about the semantics of plural NP's which is due to Bartsch [1]: plural NP's are a l w a y s interpreted as quantifying over sets rather than individuals; verbs are correspondingly always treated as collective predicates applying to sets. ...

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  • This paper presents a unification-based approach to Japanese honorifics based on a version of HPSG (Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar)ll]121. Utterance parsing is based on lexical specifications of each lexical item, including honorifics, and a few general PSG rules using a parser capable of unifying cyclic feature structures. It is shown that the possible word orders of Japanese honorific predicate constituents can be automatically deduced in the proposed f r a m e w o r k w i t h o u t i n d e p e n d e n t l y specifying them....

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  • This paper discusses a sequence of deductive parsers, called PAD1 - PAD5, that utilize an a x i o m a t i z a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e s a n d parameters of GB theory, including a restricted transformational component (Move-a). PAD2 uses an inference control strategy based on the "freeze" predicate of Prolog-II, while PAD3 - 5 utilize the Unfold-Fold transformation to transform the original axiomatization into a form that functions as a recursive descent Prolog parser for the fragment. INTRODUCTION In this paper I...

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