Xem 1-20 trên 89 kết quả Pregnancy and child’s
  • Desai et al. (2004) provide a meta-analysis of health effects from household solid fuel air pollution. Health effects were categorized by level of evidence from the research literature. Relative risk ratios associated with solid fuel use, relative to clean fuels such as LPG, were derived for each health outcome (table 3.1). 11 The national and global mortality and DALY estimates presented by WHO (2007) reflect the relative risk ratios in Desai et al, limiting the health effects to ALRI in children u5, and COPD and lung cancer in adult women and men. ALRI...

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  • Undernutrition affects large populations of boys and girls in developing countries. Its major determinant is poverty, which usually combines with other important factors like poor breastfeeding practices and inadequate complementary foods for babies, as well as lack of basic health care, safe water and sanitation. Globally, about 150 million children under five years are undernourished, which comprises 27% of the world’s population in this age group. Twelve million of these children die every year, and protein-energy malnutrition is implicated in more than 55% of all these deaths.

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  • Swiss producers of high-quality consumer products will have to be aware of the risks inherent to selling products through the multiple layers of the traditional retail sector with its small stores and the many wholesalers/distributors between producer and customer: Control over the product is easily lost, and a producer must make sure that the quality (and brand image) of his products are not compromised by inadequate handling, storage, delays in delivery etc.

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  • Results from the univariate analysis of prostate cancer mortality and incidence do not take into account the effect of different covariables, which might influence the SMR and SIR. Various covariables where considered to model longitudinal effects: age, calendar year, year of immigration, length of stay in Germany; cohort was considered for the analysis of mortality. Multivariate Poisson regression did not show any significant effect of the considered covariables on mortality (data not shown).

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  • While reviews of aid effectiveness in Lao People’s Democratic Republic in 2008 and 2009 showed little progress, one positive, concrete example has been the harmonization of key donors around the implementation of the maternal and newborn child health package (MNCH).

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  • In the early theoretical models, the level of stress of caregivers was seen as a risk factor that linked elder abuse with care of an elderly relative (36, 37). While the popular image of abuse depicts a dependent victim and an overstressed caregiver, there is growing evidence that neither of these factors properly accounts for cases of abuse. Although researchers do not deny the component of stress, they tend now to look at it in a wider context in which the quality of the overall relationship is a causal factor (30, 34, 38).

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  • India’s markets are monopolized in only a few areas reserved for the public sector, such as postal services, defense, atomic energy and railways. The government is considering gradual private participation in areas reserved for exclusive state ownership. Monopolies are rare in activities open to the private sector. The Competition Act, 2002 prohibits anti-competitive agreements, including the formation of cartels and the sharing of territories, restrictions of production and supply, collusive bidding and bid rigging and predatory pricing.

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  • With increasing recognition of the environmental impact of food and drink, future food policy and dietary advice need to go beyond the traditional focus on nutrient recommendations for health to include wider issues of sustainability. The task should not be underestimated, not least because the issue of sustainability is complex with multiple dimensions, including environmental, economic and social aspects. Current dietary advice is based on nutrient recommendations for health.

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  • Population groups that are potentially more vulnerable than others to indoor air pollution are children, pregnant women, elderly people, and people suffering from cardiovascular or respiratory diseases. Depending on their age, children may be more vulnerable than adults to certain toxic substances, like lead and tobacco smoke. Even at low levels, air pollutants may disrupt the development of their lungs, cause cough, bronchitis and other respiratory diseases, and make asthma worse.

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  • The Graduate School of Education and Psychology enrolls approximately 1,700 students. With its main headquarters located at the West Los Angeles Graduate Campus, the Graduate School also offers select programs at graduate campuses in Malibu, Irvine, Encino, and Westlake Village, as well as online. The Graduate School of Education and Psychology offers a total of 12 master’s and doctoral programs in education and psychology, all of which are founded on the theoretical understanding of service through leadership.

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  • The first step of the screening process was a group or individual counseling session to explain the purpose and process of screening. A flipchart was used to assist in this process (see Appendix 2). During an individual counseling session, informed consent was obtained and pregnancy status was assessed. Syndromic assessment for sexually transmitted infections was part of the examination. For most of the project, women were screened primarily at health-center level by nurses using visual inspection with acetic acid (vinegar), known as VIA.

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  • Mental health is a fundamental element of the resilience, health assets, capabilities and positive adaptation that enable people both to cope with adversity and to reach their full potential and humanity. Mental health is also the key to understanding the impact of inequalities on health and other outcomes. It is abundantly clear that the chronic stress of struggling with material disadvantage is intensified to a very considerable degree by doing so in more unequal societies.

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  • That idea gets a firm nod from therapist Lisa Lieberman. “It’s important not to parentify kids,” she says. They may learn more responsibility, but they need permission to be kids, have friends and be normal in that respect. “They are not there to be in charge of everything. They need to have some of the carefree spirit of being a kid.” There is a fine line between developing an appropriate sense of responsibility — not pretending that things aren’t any different — and putting too much onto their shoulders.

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  • The World Bank and the Center for International Comparisons at the University of Pennsylvania, USA. As the trend from 1990 to 2010 is estimated, the time reference of the data gathered starts from 1985, in order to cover fully the period around 1990. Deaths due to AIDS were obtained from UNAIDS (unpublished tables from the Global Report: UNAIDS Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic 2010.

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  • The evidence from the pooled data is simple and intuitive but is open to criticism because contemporaneous international stock returns are likely to be positively correlated. It is well known that cross-sectional correlation in returns can lead to understated estimates of standard error and inflated t-statistics (e.g., Bernard 1987). However, this concern is unlikely to be overly important in our setting for two reasons.

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  • Vaccine-preventable diseases are responsible for a significant proportion of the approximately 11 mil- lion deaths that occur annually among children under 5 years of age (Table 1). Yet, nowhere is the contrast between short-term disease-specific programmes and long-term developmental programmes more evident than in the area of childhood vaccination. Two contemporary vaccination strategies have received massive support from both the public and private sectors. The highest profile public health programme is the initiative to eradicate poliomyelitis.

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  • The insurance sector is an infrastructural pillar of the financial services sector and the economy as a whole. It plays a key role in economic development. Several empirical studies suggest a strong correlation between the development of financial intermediaries and economic growth. According to Patrick (1966) 3 there are two, possibly coexisting, relationships between the financial sector and economic growth.

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  • The lung has a unique vascular structure and function; it has low pressure, low resistance circulation with a highly compliant system which accommodates the same amount of flow as the systemic circulation. In addition, pulmonary and systemic vasculatures have divergent responses to various stimuli. For example, pulmonary arteries constrict in the setting of hypoxia, while systemic circulation dilates. This is due to distinctive developmental characteristics, anatomic and histological structure, as well as physiological properties.

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  • The second essay follows the path of the relation between saturation and emptiness by making an inventory of saturated motifs: the sky, the explosion as well as different forms of vacuum: the wandering, neutralization of the place, anonymity of the subject, emptiness of the space, inform, anguish, breakdown, instability, boredom, indifference… Bonfand shows that in Antonioni’s cinema the vacuum works as an autonomous and omnipresent force which disintegrates the system of representation of the films until saturating the image in return.

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  • These women are characterized by alterations in the lipid profile, amplification of the inflammatory process, elevated oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction as well as cardiovascular disease later in life, all of which comprise aspects of the same disease spectrum. Finally, Chapter 18 comprises an article offering an overview of bioethics given that, in the past few decades, the domain of health care has placed ever more emphasis on the necessity to defend and advance women’s sexual and reproductive rights.

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