Diabetes Mellitus in Pregnancy: Treatment Pregnancy complicated by diabetes mellitus is associated with higher maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality rates. Preconception counseling and treatment are important for the diabetic patient contemplating pregnancy and can reduce the risk of congenital malformations and improve pregnancy outcome. Folate supplementation reduces the incidence of fetal neural tube defects, which occur with greater frequency in fetuses of diabetic mothers.
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Successful pregnancy outcome after laparoscopicassisted excision of a bizarre leiomyoma: a case report...
Gestational Hypertension This is the development of elevated blood pressure during pregnancy or in the first 24 h post partum in the absence of preexisting chronic hypertension and other signs of preeclampsia. Uncomplicated gestational hypertension that does not progress to preeclampsia has not been associated with adverse pregnancy outcome or adverse long-term prognosis.
(See also Chaps. 272 and 280)
Normal pregnancy is characterized by an increase in glomerular filtration rate and creatinine clearance.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về bệnh thú y được đăng trên tạp chí y học General Psychiatry cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành thú y đề tài: Endocrine Proﬁles, Haematology and Pregnancy Outcomes of Late Pregnant Holstein Dairy Heifers Sired by Bulls Giving a High or Low Incidence of Stillbirth...
The view that a midwife is the expert in normal pregnancy is not new
but the context within which midwifery is practised has changed over
the years. From the early 1960s the most usual place to give birth
moved from being a woman’s home to hospital settings and the
majority of women now give birth in hospital. In recent years larger
tertiary maternity units have been developed, housing a range of
specialised services, and there has also been an increase in the number
of midwife-led units.
Medicine Chapter 7. Medical Disorders during Pregnancy
Medical Disorders during Pregnancy: Introduction
Approximately 4 million births occur in the United States each year. A significant proportion of these are complicated by one or more medical disorders. Three decades ago, many medical disorders were contraindications to pregnancy.
Advances in obstetrics, neonatology, obstetric anesthesiology, and medicine have increased the expectation that pregnancy will result in an excellent outcome for both mother and fetus despite most of these conditions. Successful pregnancy requires important physiologic adaptations, such as a marked increase in cardiac output. Medical problems that interfere with the physiologic adaptations of pregnancy increase the risk for poor pregnancy outcome; conversely, in some instances pregnancy may adversely impact an underlying medical disorder. ...
For example, in the case of a multinational corporation, it might be reason-
able to assume a high degree of control and coordination in the administration
of the cluster of subnets of the corporation’s intranet. The administrators of
this intranet might very well be able to design and manage the whole network
of event servers deployed on their subnets, and thus it might be a good idea to
adopt a hierarchical architecture within the intranet. Of course, the intranet
would connect to other networks outside of the inﬂuence of the administrators.
Diabetes is a unique condition for women. When compared with men,
women have a 50 percent greater risk of diabetic coma, a condition brought on
by poorly controlled diabetes and lack of insulin. Women with diabetes have
heart disease rates similar to men, but more women with diabetes die from a
first heart attack than do men with diabetes. Diabetes also poses special
challenges during pregnancy.
The probiotic bacteria must be viable to affect the
health, but the non-viable bacteria could also affect the immunological status of the
host. It is believed that the arrival of probiotic bacteria with food to different parts of
intestine can increase probiotic bacteria adherence and the rate of colonization. Food
products may contain many forms of probiotic bacteria, including culture concentrate
that is added to a food (dried or deep-freeze form), the fermented or non-fermented
food products, and dietary supplements in the form of drug products-powder,
capsules or tablet.
In my presidential address, I summarized our past and present status,
and focused on a proposal for our future. You may read the full
text, entitled “Strategies and Goals: The Future of the International
Gynecologic Cancer Society” in the December 2010 issue of our
International Journal of Gynecological Cancer. At the IGCS website,
you may view a webcast of my address as well as those of many
of the presenters from our 13th Biennial Meeting.
Desai et al. (2004) provide a meta-analysis of health effects from household solid fuel air
pollution. Health effects were categorized by level of evidence from the research
literature. Relative risk ratios associated with solid fuel use, relative to clean fuels such
as LPG, were derived for each health outcome (table 3.1).
The national and global
mortality and DALY estimates presented by WHO (2007) reflect the relative risk ratios in
Desai et al, limiting the health effects to ALRI in children u5, and COPD and lung cancer
in adult women and men.
Current practice guidelines for ventilatory management advocate protective lung strategies
to prevent volutrauma, barotrauma, atelectrauma and biotrauma (3-5). The principles are to
use low tidal volumes (Vt) (5-6 ml/kg ideal body weight), maintenance of low mean airway
pressures ≤ 30 cmH2O, judicious use of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) with Δ
pressure ≤ 18 cmH2O, higher respiratory rates and permissive hypercapnia.
There is no doubt that the protection of women during pregnancy and lactation must be one
of the major priorities of health systems and social policies. The effect of women’s nutritional
status on pregnancy outcomes is particularly strong, and adequate maternal nutrition is
closely related to the survival and well-being of babies and children. However, not all women
are mothers, and their nutritional and health needs go far beyond motherhood and
Women of all ages in developing countries face elevated risks of nutritional deficiencies.
Overweight and obesity in the United States among adults
and children has increased significantly over the last two
decades. Those following typical American eating and
activity patterns are likely to be consuming diets in excess
of their energy requirements. However, caloric intake is
only one side of the energy balance equation. Caloric
expenditure needs to be in balance with caloric intake to
maintain body weight and must exceed caloric intake to
achieve weight loss (see tables 3 and 4).
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) follows an extremely variable course with
survival ranging from months to decades. Recently, there has been major progress in
the identification of molecular and cellular markers that may predict the tendency for
disease progression in CLL patients. In particular, the mutational profile of Ig genes
and some cytogenetic abnormalities have been found to be important predictors of
prognosis in CLL. However, this progress has raised new questions about the biology,
prognosis and management of the disease, some of which are addressed here. ...
The Affordable Care Act increases insurance company accountability by supporting States’
review of premium increases, setting standards for the amount of premiums spent on benefits
versus overhead (i.e., medical loss ratios), and posting insurance price information for
transparency. A Small Business Health Care Tax Credit, reinsurance for early retirees, and
premium assistance for uninsured people with pre-existing conditions have already provided
targeted relief for millions of insured and uninsured Americans, and these changes are making a
Young women exposed to pregnancy
experience greater likelihood of childbirth-
related morbidity and mortality, with some
countries experiencing mortality rates among
women aged 15 - 19 that are as high as twice
that of women in their 20s or 30s (WHO,
1989). Physiological under-development
increases the likelihood of prolonged or
obstructed labor, which may lead to ruptured
uterus and death for the mother or fetus
(Network, 1994). Negative pregnancy
outcomes also result in part from poor
prenatal health behavior among young adults,
particularly teenage schoolgirls.
Surrogacy is an agreement in which a woman becomes pregnant and gives birth to a child for
someone else. Surrogacy can be paid or unpaid, and often involves a legal contract in which the
surrogate gives up parental rights to the child she births. If the surrogate’s own eggs are used
through alternative insemination or IVF, she is known as the “genetic surrogate.” If embryos are
created using another woman’s eggs and implanted in the surrogate, she is known as the
“gestational surrogate” and has no genetic tie to the child. Hiring a surrogate in the US can...
Although at that point, the challenges of a potential Pandemic Influenza were not being considered, this risk is now also being addressed by the training. Avian Influenza has continued its march across Europe and remains a serious threat (Revill 2007; Shaikh 2007). In this survey, 91% of senior living (SL) and long term care (LTC) administrators felt ill-prepared to deal with public health emergencies and BT threats. Eighty percent of the respondents reported that their LTC communities did not have any training (either educational or exercise based) for their workforce in this area.