In sub-Saharan Africa, as high as 2/3 of tuberculosis patients are HIV/AIDS co-infected and
tuberculosis is the most common cause of death among HIV/AIDS patients worldwide. Tuberculosis and HIV
co-infections are associated with special diagnostic and therapeutic challenges and constitute an immense burden
on healthcare systems of heavily infected countries like Ethiopia. The aim of the study was to determine the
prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis and their immunologic profiles among HIV positive patients.
Prevalence of severe mental distress and its correlates in a population-based study in rural south-west Uganda
Eugene Kinyanda1*, Laban Waswa1, Kathy Baisley2 and Dermot Maher1,2
Background: The problem of severe mental distress (SMD) in sub-Saharan Africa is difficult to investigate given that a substantial proportion of patients with SMD never access formal health care. This study set out to investigate SMD and it’s associated factors in a rural population-based cohort in south-west Uganda.
The prevalence of malaria (44.0%) recorded was comparable to 44.8% rate
reported by Ejezie and Ezedinachi (1992) for the non-displaced residents in
a malaria endemic location in calabar, south Eastern state, Nigeria, (Mara
and Arma 2001). The prevalence of malaria among the children in the idp
comps in however higher than the documented UNICEF’s prevalence rate of
34% for the under-fives with malaria fever in Nigeria for the period between
1999 and 2005 (UNICEF, 2007). The absence of ant-malarial measures such
as the use of mosquito nets in the camp.
People concentrated in congregated systems, such as prisons, are important but often neglected
reservoirs for TB transmission, and threaten those in the outside community. Therefore, this study was conducted to
determine the prevalence of tuberculosis in a prison system of North Gondar Zone.
Methods: An active case-finding survey in North Gondar Prison was carried out from March to May 2011. All prison
inmates who had history of cough for at least a week were included in the study.
Fairly large proportion of patients attending
for the first time the Chest Clinics in India have
had anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy for some
time though irregularly. The assessment of the
prevalence of Initial Drug Resistance (IDR)
among these patients will be of great value in
their management and also in formulating
general policies of treatment in the Chest
Clinics under the National Tuberculosis Control
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài:Prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection among health care workers in a hospital for pulmonary diseases
World health statistics 2007 presents the most recent health statistics for WHO’s 193 Member States. This
third edition includes a section with 10 highlights of global health statistics for the past year as well as an
expanded set of 50 health statistics.
World health statistics 2007 has been collated from publications and databases produced by WHO’s
technical programmes and regional offi ces. The core set of indicators was selected on the basis of their
relevance to global health, the availability and quality of the data, and the accuracy and comparability
In the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) in India, the target of 85 per cent cure rate has been attained. A recent report indicates a success rate of 87 per cent in 200915. This, however, is a mean of results achieved throughout the country with a HIV prevalence of 0.29 per cent16. The distribution of HIV infection is uneven and there are six States which have HIV prevalence over 1 per cent. In such areas, the prevalence of HIV infection in TB patients may be high, which could in turn affect the efficacy of the RNTCP regimen.
In the TB...
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of presumed ocular tuberculosis among
diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients in a tertiary government hospital in the Philippines and determine its
common presentation in the population. This was a cross-sectional study in which 103 patients who were labeled
to have active pulmonary tuberculosis underwent history and ocular examination prior to anti-tubercular therapy.
The diagnosis of presumed ocular tuberculosis was made when clinical signs of tuberculosis (TB) uveitis were found
in the participants.
Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is a
milder form of disease in terms of infectivity as
compared to pulmonary TB (PTB). Whereas sputum
can be easily obtained for the detection of disease in
lungs, diagnosis of EPTB is often difficult requiring
invasive and expensive serological/radiological
investigations. A category-wise drug treatment is
similar for the two forms of disease1. However, an
assessment of end point of cure is a problem with
Before the advent of chemotherapy, tuberculosis was one of the
major causes of death in both Western  and also several non-
Western countries . While effective chemotherapy for tuberculosis
has been available since the 1950s (isoniazid (INH) was
introduced in 1952, the less effective para-aminosalicylic acid
(PAS) and streptomycin slightly earlier ) the prognosis of
untreated tuberculosis is still of great importance, as many patients
will not receive appropriate treatment because their condition was
never properly diagnosed as tuberculosis.
The Encyclopedia of Diseases and Disorders provides
authoritative information on a wide variety of diseases
and health disorders. Although the focus in planning
this collection of articles was on subjects of interest to
young readers, the information provided here is
valuable to users of any age. More than two hundred
articles are categorized in three major areas of interest:
infections, noninfectious diseases, and mental
The Communication highlighted the role played by microfinance institutions/micro-credit providers
in developing the provision of micro-credit in Europe and stressed that adequate technical support
is necessary to help these operators release their potential.
“YouthAIDS played a crucial role in moving PSI from an organization that relied almost
100 percent on U.S. Government funding to one whose nearly $600 million per year in
funding comes from extremely diverse sources, from corporate and foundation donors to
international organizations and foreign governments. YouthAIDS proved to PSI that we
could successfully appeal to a broader donor base as it made it necessary to tell the
story of our work in a language that non-technical people could understand and support.
Nearly all of Steve Jobs’ presentations were divided into three parts. For example: When Jobs took the stage on September 9,
2009, he told the audience he would be talking about three products: iPhone, iTunes and iPod. Along the way he provided verbal
guideposts such as “iPhone. The first thing I wanted to talk about today. Now, let’s move on to the second, iTunes.”
The number three is a powerful concept in writing. Playwrights know that three is more dramatic than two; comedians know that
three is funnier than four; and Steve Jobs knew that three is more memorable than...
Some affluent investors use municipal bond funds as a source of
tax-exempt interest income. Because municipal bond funds tend
to have lower before-tax interest yields than those on taxable
bonds, this investment is usually appropriate only for people in
high tax brackets.
Finally, investors may use short-term, high-quality bond funds as an
alternative to money market funds.While this strategy can provide
higher returns, it does entail the risk that the investor could lose
some principal because of fluctuating bond prices....
A central securities depository provides securities accounts, central safekeeping
services, and asset services, which may include the administration of corporate actions and
redemptions, and plays an important role in helping to ensure the integrity of securities
issues (that is, ensure that securities are not accidentally or fraudulently created or destroyed
or their details changed). A CSD can hold securities either in physical form (but immobilised)
or in dematerialised form (that is, they exist only as electronic records).
Note that, although this diagram provides a collapsed view of a complex process that comprises many
different players and steps, it accurately reflects how policy on air pollution is set, who the different
players are in that process, and how the information they need flows through the decision-making chain.
We have used this model to develop the Apheis communications strategy and to determine specifically
with which audiences we need to communicate, what information each audience needs, and in what form
they need it.
Exposure to pollutants from the World Trade Center attacks has come primarily in
three phases. First, the collapse of the two 110-story towers and adjacent structures
generated high-intensity, peak pollution discharges on September 11th
. Second, fires
from the crash of two fuel-filled airliners into the Trade Center towers and fires and the
resulting smoke plume at Ground Zero following the towers’ collapse created significant
additional pollution discharges, which continued to some degree for at least three months.
Although the former NOP director attributed the agency’s inability to effectively act on investigations and issue enforcement actions to a lack of resources, we determined that several other factors contributed to this deficiency. We noted, for instance, that NOP lacked procedures for receiving, reviewing, and maintaining reports of investigations from AMS Compliance. In addition, NOP did not establish a specific written process, including timeframes, for determining which enforcement actions are appropriate and for initiating and completing such actions in a timely manner.