Hence, the challenge is to include the development of stratification biomarkers into the concept
of disease prevention and drug development. In addition, we should distinguish between
biomarkers and assays. Biomarkers need to be qualified and properly detected before they can be
used in the clinics. Therefore, the applicability of a qualified biomarker relies also on the
development of a robust assay.
The publication Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations (the List, commonly known as the Orange Book) identifies drug products approved on the basis of safety and effectiveness by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the Act). (For more information, see the Orange Book Preface.)
Recent reductions in cancer mortality are
due in part to risk reduction behaviors like
smoking cessation and more strongly to early
detection of cancer coupled with appropriate
therapy. Yet, there are no validated molecular
biomarker tests for the early detection of any
cancer (see Table I). Among the list of Food
and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved
biomarkers, none have been approved for
cancer early detection and screening.
Purpose: Based on theoretical studies of state management on the prevention of drugs, analysis and assessment of the state of the state management on the prevention of drugs in Vietnam, fellows establish and implement the scientific foundation to propose practical solutions to improve system ef ciency of state management on the prevention of drugs in Vietnam during the integration period.
In many countries, medicine is at present
facing urgent political and economic calls
for reform. These socioeconomic pressures
notwithstanding, pharmacotherapy has always
been an integral part of the health care
system and will remain so in the future.
Well-founded knowledge of the preventive
and therapeutic value of drugs is a sine qua
non for the successful treatment of patients
entrusting themselves to a physician or
Because of the plethora of proprietary medicines
and the continuous influx of new
pharmaceuticals, the drug market is dif cult
to survey and hard to understand.
Velocity encoded phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (VE-PC MRI) is another
imaging technique used to noninvasively measure Achilles tendon strain and changes in its
force-displacement relationship concomitant with chronic unloading and subsequent
recuperation. This technique will be reviewed in terms of its ability to quantify the Achilles
tendon Young’s modulus (MPa) from a stress-strain curve.
The Interagency Working Group on Food Marketed to Children (Working Group),
comprised of representatives from the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), the Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), seeks public comment on a preliminary
proposal for voluntary principles to guide industry self-regulatory efforts to improve the
nutritional profile of foods marketed to children.
The development of vaccines and drugs that prevent and cure bacterial infections was one of the twentieth century's major contributions to human longevity and quality of life. Antibacterial agents are among the most commonly prescribed drugs of any kind worldwide. Used appropriately, these drugs are lifesaving. However, their indiscriminate use drives up the cost of health care, leads to a plethora of side effects and drug interactions, and fosters the emergence of bacterial resistance, rendering previously valuable drugs useless. ...
In this highly competitive labour market, both women and men may
find it impossible to ensure enough income to keep their families
alive and healthy in the long term while insisting that their health
be protected in the short term. This publication provides a global
overview of gender issues in research, policies and programmes on
work and health and highlights some specific issues for women. In
particular, it will examine some apparent incompatibilities between
women’s struggles for economic and social equality and their need to
protect their health. ...
This charge was extremely broad. It could have included literature reviews on such topics as characteristics of substance users, etiology of initiation of use, etiology of dependence, drug use prevention programs, and drug treatments. Two considerations led to narrowing the focus of our work. The first was substantive. Each of the topics just noted involves very large fields of
The first meeting with a TB patient usually takes place when a patient receives the
results of diagnostic tests and is started on treatment for TB, or when the patient is
registered in the TB Patient Register (TB 03). The initial meeting with the patient
provides the opportunity to communicate essential information about TB and its
The first meeting with a patient also provides a good opportunity for the health care
worker to gather information from the patient.
The referral system is not
functional, and patients often ignore secondary or tertiary care due to the high costs involved. Stock-
outs of drugs and supplies and inadequate HRH availability impact service delivery. Lack of financial and
human resources adversely impacts regulation and quality control. Many services, including those related
to HIV and tuberculosis (TB), are not well integrated into the general health delivery system and
continue to be provided vertically.
The last quarter of a century has seen dramatic
developments in the management of cardiovascular
diseases. Besides the pioneering developments in
the medical management of cardiovascular disorders
the field of interventional cardiology has also emerged
as a major discipline with a huge impact on the
clinical management of acute coronary syndrome,
chronic coronary artery disease, congestive heart
failure, and peripheral vascular and valvular diseases.
Medicine is an ever-changing science. As new research and clinical experience broaden our knowledge, changes in treatment
and drug therapy are required. The authors and the publisher of this work have checked with sources believed to be reliable in
their efforts to provide information that is complete and generally in accord with the standards accepted at the time of
We are pleased to present the 7th edition of the Clinician’s Pocket Drug Reference.
This book is based on the drug presentation style used since 1983 in the Clinician’s
Pocket Reference, popularly known as the Scut Monkey Book. Our goal is to identify
the most frequently used and clinically important medications, including
branded, generic and OTC products. The book includes well over 1000 medications
and is designed to represent a cross section of commonly used products in
medical practices across the country....
The Tenth Edition of the Handbook of Clinical Drug Data continues a long
tradition of providing clinically relevant, well-referenced drug information compiled
by expert clinicians and presented in a compact format. The formats of all
sections should be familiar to users of the ninth edition. As with recent editions,
information in the Handbook is divided into three part
With this in mind, Roberts met with Holscher and together they created YouthAIDS,
sketching the logo and mission on a napkin over coffee in a Washington, DC café.
YouthAIDS would be a specific entity within the PSI portfolio of activities. The concept
was to begin with a cause-related marketing campaign that would provide a platform
from which to raise awareness, promote PSI’s work and provide a novel source of
funding. The cause – preventing young people from becoming infected with HIV – would
form the core of the campaign.
Nitrate and nitrite compounds are being used for various purposes, such as coronary artery dilators, coloring reagents for meat, rust preventives, fertilizers and explosives. When a nitrate salt is ingested by a human, nitric acid is converted into nitrous acid by the action of nitric acidreducing bacteria inhabiting the upper digestive tract; the nitrous acid oxidizes the divalent ferrous ion of hemoglobin to produce methemoglobin a with the trivalent ferric ion.
This chapter describes the physiological role and pathophysical consequences of histamine release
and provides a summary of the therapeutic use of histamine H1-receptor antagonists. H2-receptor
antagonists are discussed in detail in Chapter 37: Agents Used for Control of Gastric Acidity and
Treatment of Peptic Ulcers and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in the context of prevention and
treatment of peptic ulcers, their principal therapeutic application.