Previous studies

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  • Oxidative functions of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), which play a deciding role in the phagocytosis process, are stimulated by extracellular matrix proteins such as type I collagen. Previous studies have demonstrated the involvement of a DGGRYY sequence located within the a1 chain C-terminal telopeptide in type I collagen-induced PMN activation, but so far the mechanism has not been completely elucidated.

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  • The operational procedures of the Bank of Greece underwent major changes during the 1990s. These shifts in operational strategy made interest rates the main tool of monetary policy for the first time in Greece. This paper examines the effects of changes in the bank’s operational interest rates on market interest rates at eight maturities and for different operational regimes. A major feature of our study is the application of the event study methodology used in finance, which has not been employed in any previous study on this subject.

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  • The Routledge Companion to Translation Studies brings together clear, detailed essays from leading international scholars on major areas in translation studies today. This accessible and authoritative guide offers fresh perspectives on linguistics, context, culture, politics and ethics and contains a range of contributions on emerging areas such as cognitive theories, technology, interpreting and audiovisual translation. Supported by an extensive glossary of key concepts and a substantial bibliography, this Companion is an essential....

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  • Chapters V and VII of this book appeared, nearly in their present form, in the International Journal of Ethics. (July 1896, and July 1897.) The other chapters have not been previously published. In referring to Hegel’s works I have used the Collected Edition, the publication of which began in 1832. For purposes of quotation I have generally availed myself of Wallace’s translation of the Encyclopaedia, of Dyde’s translation of the Philosophy of Law, and of Spiers’ and Sanderson’s translation of the Philosophy of Religion. I am much indebted to Mr G. L.

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  • Operating eco-industrial park (EIP) based on industrial ecology theory has emerged since 1970s to reduce the impact of waste and save natural resources. It is especially meaningful for developing countries like Vietnam to reach sustainable development goals. The study is based on the theory of industrial ecology, the previous studies of applicable capacity in Vietnam condition and the development orientations in Hai Duong province – the study area.

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  • This paper underlines the idea of endogenous growth theory that new or higher quality products have significant impacts on productivity and economic growth. Different with previous studies, this paper uses a quite comprehensive definition of variety, which distinguishes the country of origin of the products. With disaggregated level of export data of Japan from 1980 to 2000, the empirical results suggest that nearly half of the industries studied have positive and significant relationship between varieties and Total Factor Productivity (TFP).

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  • As life expectancy continues to rise, one of the greatest challenges of public health is to improve the quality of later years of life. The aim of this present study was to analyze the quality of life profile of the elderly across different demographic and socioeconomic factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out in two stages, involving 1,958 individuals aged 60 years or more. Health related quality of life (HRQOL) was assessed using the SF-36 questionnaire.

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  • The chemistry of bamboo is important in determining its utilization potential. Several studies have investigated the chemical composition of bamboo. But systematic and thorough research on a commercially important bamboo species is needed to determine utilization potential for the products such as medium density fiberboard (MDF). Most of previous studies provide either only general information of several bamboo species or focuses on only one aspect of one species.

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  • A number of recent papers document a link between mood and stock returns. Convincing arguments that such results are not simply the product of data mining call for investigating a new mood variable or testing an existing mood variable on an independent sample to confirm results of previous studies. For example, Hirshleifer and Shumway (2003) confirm and extend the sunlight effect first documented by Saunders (1993).

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  • Adenylyltransferase is a bifunctional enzyme that controls the enzymatic activity of dodecameric glutamine synthetase inEscherichia coliby rever-sible adenylylation and deadenylylation. Previous studies showed that the two similar but chemically distinct reactions are carried out by separate domains within adenylyltransferase.

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  • Previously, we have shown by sensitivity analysis, that the oscillatory behavior of nuclear factor (NF-jB) is coupled to free IkappaB kinase-2 (IKK2) and IkappaBalpha(IjBa), and that the phosphorylation of IjBaby IKK influences the amplitude of NF-jB oscillations.

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  • Volvatoxin A2, a pore-forming cardiotoxic protein, was isolated from the edible mushroomVolvariella volvacea. Previous studies have demonstrated that volvatoxin A consists of volvatoxin A2 and volvatoxin A1, and the hemolytic activity of volvatoxin A2 is completely abolished by volvatoxin A1 at a volvatoxin A2⁄volvatoxin A1 molar ratio of 2.

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  • Previous studies have suggested that positive feedback loops and ultrasensi-tivity are prerequisites for bistability in covalent modification cascades. However, it was recently shown that bistability and hysteresis can also arise solely from multisite phosphorylation.

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  • Monoclonal nonspecific suppressor factorb (MNSFb) is a ubiquitously expressed member of the ubiquitin-like family that has been implicated in various biological functions. Previous studies have demonstrated that MNSFbcovalently binds to the intracellular proapoptotic protein Bcl-G in cells of the macrophage cell line Raw264.7, suggesting involvement of this ubiquitin-like protein in apoptosis.

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  • Ech hydrogenase fromMethanosarcina barkeriis a member of a distinct group of membrane-bound [NiFe] hydrogenases with sequence similarity to energy-conserving NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (complex I). The sequence of the enzyme predicts the binding of three [4Fe-4S] clusters, one by subunit EchC and two by subunit EchF. Previous studies had shown that two of these clusters could be fully reduced under 10 5 Pa of H2at pH 7 giving rise to two distinct S½ electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signals, designated as the g¼1.89 and theg¼1.92 signal....

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  • In a previous work of ours Chinnakotla et al. (2010) we introduced a novel framework for Pseudo-Relevance Feedback (PRF) called MultiPRF. Given a query in one language called Source, we used English as the Assisting Language to improve the performance of PRF for the source language. MulitiPRF showed remarkable improvement over plain Model Based Feedback (MBF) uniformly for 4 languages, viz., French, German, Hungarian and Finnish with English as the assisting language.

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  • Among the various approaches to WSD, the supervised learning approach is the most successful to date. In this approach, we first collect a corpus in which each occurrence of an ambiguous word w has been manually annotated with the correct sense, according to some existing sense inventory in a dictionary. This annotated corpus then serves as the training material for a learning algorithm. After training, a model is automatically learned and it is used to assign the correct sense to any previously unseen occurrence of w in a new context. ...

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  • Mortality in the host armyworm larvaePseudaletia separata parasitized by the parasitic waspCotesia kariyaiwas dra-matically increased when they were simultaneously infected by the entomopathogen Serratia marcescens. Previous studies have shown that this strong insecticidal effect is due to a metalloprotease-like insecticide (MPLI)released from S. marcescensenterobacter. This study was conducted to elucidate the exact cause of the mortality resulting from MPLI.

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  • This study attempts to find answers to the question of how a computer program should resolve atThis empirical study attempts to find answers to the question of how a natural language (henceforth tachment by examining naturally occurring PP atNL) system could resolve attachment of preposi- tachments in a typed dialogue domain drawn from a study by Brunner, Whittemore, Ferrara, and Hsu tional phrases (henceforth PPs) by examining nat(1989). Various previously developed theories of urally occurring PP attachments in typed dialogue. ...

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  • This paper presents a critical discussion of the various approaches that have been used in the evaluation of Natural Language systems. We conclude that previous approaches have neglected to evaluate systems in the context of their use, e.g. solving a task requiring data retrieval. This raises questions about the validity of such approaches. In the second half of the paper, we report a laboratory study using the Wizard of Oz technique to identify NL requirements for carrying out this task.

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