A financial market is a market in which people and entities can trade financial securities, commodities, and other fungible items of value at low transaction costsand at prices that reflect supply and demand. Securities include stocks and bonds, and commodities include precious metals or agricultural goods.
Society relies on well-functioning capital markets to promote economic progress in
businesses and households. To that goal, academics argue that capital markets should
provide for price discovery and liquidity, where the best way to find out what an asset
is worth is to attempt to sell it. As long as there are a large number of market
participants, bidding among them leads to price discovery, and an asset is sold quickly
resulting in liquidity. Moreover, in a well functioning market the price should be close to
its intrinsic value.
Know Your Odds Before You Trade By Lawrence Chan Second Edition, April 2012 Copyright Lawrence Chan 2010-2012 Smashwords Edition License Notes: Permission is given to copy, distribute, repost, reprint, and share this free eBook provided it is presented in its entirety without alteration and the reader is not charged to access it. Also by Lawrence Chan, available now and soon at ebook retailers everywhere: Special Theory of Price Discovery Market Bias Detective: S&P 500 Daytrading Time Map Vol. 1 & 2 Market Bias Detective: ForexDaytrading Time Map Vol. 1 Market Bias Observer Newsletter...
Note, however, that the securities laws of applicable non-U.S. jurisdictions, which are beyond
the scope of this article, must be complied with. Although Regulation S provides a complex
hierarchy of offering types and the corresponding requirements for each, the basic principle is
that there must be no “directed selling efforts” in (toward) the United States.
What is the role of market valuation in bank stock returns? The ratio of book
value to market value of equity (BTM) is often used as an indicator for firms’
future earnings capacity. Put another way, if investors have a favourable view ill push up the price of its stock, thus lowering
its cost of equity and creating incentives for managers to undertake additional
investment. By contrast, financial stress would coincide with rising BTM ratios.
From 2008, the BTM ratio rose around 50% for most banks in the sample
In our view, the most reliable estimate available is a total value of U.S. corporations
of 1.54 times GNP, or 17.5 times after-tax corporate earnings. This estimate is based on a
detailed study of 135 industrial corporations done by Laurence Sloan and Associates (1936)
at the Standard Statistics Company, a company that later merged with Poor’s Publishing
to become Standard and Poor’s (S&P). The estimate we will use, however, is a total value
of 1.67 times GNP (or 19 times after-tax corporate earnings). This estimate is based on the
price-earnings ratio of the S&P composite stock index.
Favorable ratings from these three credit agencies were crucial for the successful
sale of the securities based on subprime residential mortgages and other debt obligations.
The sales of these bonds, in turn, were an important underpinning for the
fifi nancing of the self-reinforcing price-rise bubble in the U.S. housing market. When
house prices ceased rising in mid 2006 and then began to decline, the default rates
on the mortgages underlying these securities rose sharply, and those initial ratings
proved to be excessively optimistic.
This book deals with the most fascinating subject in stock and commodity analysis. It is the integration of Nature's Law (seen as a behavioral phenomenon) into price studies to create a serious and reliable investment tool. New discoveries with the Fibonacci summation series open the window for a price-time analysis that can pinpoint tops and bottoms with a stunning accuracy
Worldwide, crude oil demand is unceasingly increasing. As a response, Enhanced Oil
Recovery (EOR) processes have re‐gained interest from the research and development
phases to the oilfield EOR implementation stage. This renewed interest has been also
furthered by the current high oil price environment, the maturation of oilfields
worldwide, and few new‐well discoveries. Concurrently, environmental concerns and
public pressure related to crude oil pollution control and remediation of oilcontaminated
sites are becoming greater than ever....