Pricing theory

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  • Bài giảng Chapter 5: Risk and return - Portfolio theory and asset pricing models presents of portfolio theory, capital asset pricing model (CAPM) (efficient frontier, capital market line (CML), security market line (SML), beta calculation, beta calculation), arbitrage pricing theory, fama french 3 factor model.

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  • Price theory is made richer by the fact that each individual’s choices can affect the opportunities available to others. If you decide to eat all of the cake, your roommate cannot decide to eat some too. An equilibrium is an outcome in which each person’s behavior is compatible with the restrictions imposed by everybody else’s behavior. In many situations, it is possible to say both that there is only one possible equilibrium and that there are good reasons to expect that equilibrium to actually come about. This enables the economist to make predictions about the world....

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  • Asset pricing theory tries to understand the prices or values of claims to uncertain payments. A low price implies a high rate of return, so one can also think of the theory as explaining why some assets pay higher average returns than others. To value an asset, we have to account for the delay and for the risk of its payments. The effects of time are not too difficult to work out. However, corrections for risk are much more important determinants of an many assets’ values. For example, over the last 50 years U.S. stocks have given a real return of about 9% on average. Of...

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  • In a world where ownership is divorced from control, characterised by economic and geo-political uncertainty, our companion text Portfolio Theory and Financial Analyses (PTFA henceforth) began with the following question. We then observed that if investors are rational and capital markets are efficient with a large number of constituents,economic variables (such as share prices and returns) should be random, which simplifies matters.

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  • Asset prices are determined by investors’ risk preferences and by the distributions of assets’ risky future payments. Economists refer to these two bases of prices as investor "tastes" and the economy’s "technologies" for generating asset returns. A satisfactory theory of asset valuation must consider how individuals allocate their wealth among assets having different future payments. This chapter explores the development of expected utility theory, the standard approach for modeling investor choices over risky assets....

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  • During the past 25 years of digital information development, industry-wide discussion has progressed from resolving technology issues for managing GI to establishing policy for accessing it, especially in the public sector. Geographic Information: Value, Pricing, Production and Consumption brings the producer and consumer arguments together, providing a fresh perspective on the emotional and territorial issues of IPR (intellectual property rights) protection and liberation.

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  • Once a company issues shares (common stock) and receives the proceeds, it has no direct involvement with their subsequent transactions on the capital market, or the price at which they are traded. These are matters for negotiation between existing shareholders and prospective investors, based on their own financial agenda.

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  • We wrote the first edition of this textbook more than ten years ago. The intervening years have been a period of rapid and profound change in the investments industry. This is due in part to an abundance of newly designed securities, in part to the creation of new trading strategies that would have been impossible without concurrent advances in computer technology, and in part to rapid advances in the theory of investments that have come out of the academic community.

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  • In discussing equilibrium within the IS-LM model, it has been assumed that –prices are fixed –the supply-side of the economy can be ignored. These assumptions must now be relaxed.

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  • The 2007 global financial crisis ignited by reckless bankers and their flawed reward structures will be felt for years to come. Emerging from the wreckage, however, is renewed support for the over-arching objective of traditional finance theory, namely the long-run maximisation of shareholder wealth using the current market value of ordinary shares (common stock) as a benchmark.

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  • The discipline of economics has developed principles, theories, and models that isolate the most important determinants of economic events. In constructing a model, economists make assumptions to eliminate unnecessary detail to reduce the complexity of economic behavior. Once modeled, economic behavior may be presented as a relationship between dependent and independent variables. The behavior being explained is the dependent variable; the economic events explaining that behavior are the independent variables.

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  • .Page i Valuation Measuring and Managing the Value of Companies .Page ii WILEY FINANCE Advanced Fixed-Income Valuation Tools, Narasimham Jegadeesh and Bruce Tuckman Beyond Value at Risk, Kevin Dowd Buying and Selling Volatility, Kevin B. Connolly Chaos and Order in the Capital Markets: New View of Cycles, Prices, and Market Volatility, Second Edition, Edgar E. Peters Corporate Financial Distress and Bankruptcy, Second Edition, Edward I.

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  • This paper analyzes the role of the financial system for economic growth and stability, and addresses a number of core policy issues for financial sector reforms in emerging economies. The role of finance is studied in the context of a circuit model with interacting rational, forward- looking, and heterogeneous agents. Finance is shown to essentially complement the price system in coordinating decentralized intertemporal resource allocation choices from agents operating under limited information and incomplete trust.

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  • The binomial asset pricing model provides a powerful tool to understand arbitrage pricing theory and probability theory. In this course, we shall use it for both these purposes.

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  • CNC controllers, working as a brain for manufacturing automation, are high valueadded products accounting for over 30% of the price of machine tools. CNC technology is generally considered as a measure of the level of manufacturing technology of a nation, and is currently led by major advanced countries such as USA, Japan, and Germany.

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  • Chapter 5 Risk and Return: Portfolio Theory and Asset Pricing Models a. A portfolio is made up of a group of individual assets held in combination. An asset that would be relatively risky if held in isolation may have little, or even no risk if held in a well-diversified portfolio.

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  • The contents of this book include: Introduction (L. Renneboog) Part 1: Corporate restructuring; mergers and acquisitions in Europe (M. Martynova, L. Renneboog); the performance of acquisitive companies in the US (K. Cools, M. V. D. Laar); The announcement effects and long-run stock market performance of corporate spin-offs: The international evidence (C. veld, Y. Veld-Merkoulova); the competitive challenge in banking (A. Boot, A. Schmeits); Consolidation of the European banking sector: Impact on innovation (H. Degryse, S. Ongena, M.F. Penas)...

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  • Chapter 18 Distributions to Shareholders: Dividends and Repurchases a. The optimal distribution policy is one that strikes a balance between dividend yield and capital gains so that the firm’s stock price is maximized. b. The dividend irrelevance theory holds that dividend policy has no effect on either the price of a firm’s stock or its cost of capital.

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  • In the 1950s and 1960s airports were seen as just another, fairly inconsequential arm of government. Over the past 20 years, however, it has become obvious that airports can actually be run as highly successful and profitable businesses. Despite this success the industry has, until now, had no defined economic theory to base itself on. The aim of The Airport Business is to change this.

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  • Chapter 8 Financial Options and Their Valuation 8-1 a. An option is a contract which gives its holder the right to buy or sell an asset at some predetermined price within a specified period of time. A call option allows the holder to buy the asset, while a put option allows the holder to sell the asset.

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