Principles of caring

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  • Principles of Chemotherapy Medical oncology is the subspecialty of internal medicine that cares for and designs treatment approaches to patients with cancer, in conjunction with surgical and radiation oncologists. The core skills of the medical oncologist include the use of drugs that may have a beneficial effect on the natural history of the patient's illness or favorably influence the patient's quality of life. In general, the curability of a tumor is inversely related to tumor volume and directly related to drug dose.

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  • Diseases of the nervous system number in the hundreds and are too numerous and varied to be learned in their entirety. Hence the common practice of subdividing them into categories—traumatic, vascular, neoplastic, infective, metabolic, degenerative, congenital, and so forth. In our textbook, Principles of Neurology, we describe the various categories of neurologic disease and the main diseases that constitute each category.

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  • The goal of cancer treatment is first to eradicate the cancer. If this primary goal cannot be accomplished, the goal of cancer treatment shifts to palliation, the amelioration of symptoms, and preservation of quality of life while striving to extend life. The dictum primum non nocere is not the guiding principle of cancer therapy. When cure of cancer is possible, cancer treatments may be undertaken despite the certainty of severe and perhaps life-threatening toxicities.

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  • This collection of essays demonstrates the international scope of history of nursing scholarship today, encompassing studies from Japan, New Zealand, South Africa, Canada and Europe. The authors examine the social and ethical issues which challenge nurses and midwives in different cultures; the transcultural issues which arise when carers move from one culture to another; and the process of professionalization for women over three centuries. The book highlights the significance of nursing in the history of womenʼs lives and work....

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  • Palliation Surgery is employed in a number of ways for supportive care: insertion of central venous catheters, control of pleural and pericardial effusions and ascites, caval interruption for recurrent pulmonary emboli, stabilization of cancerweakened weight-bearing bones, and control of hemorrhage, among others. Surgical bypass of gastrointestinal, urinary tract, or biliary tree obstruction can alleviate symptoms and prolong survival. Surgical procedures may provide relief of otherwise intractable pain or reverse neurologic dysfunction (cord decompression).

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  • Karnofsky was among the first to champion the evaluation of a chemotherapeutic agent's benefit by carefully quantitating its effect on tumor size and using these measurements to objectively decide the basis for further treatment of a particular patient or further clinical evaluation of a drug's potential.

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  • The purpose of the International Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ISTC) is to describe a widely accepted level of care that all practitioners, public and private, should seek to achieve in managing patients who have, or are suspected of having, tuberculosis. The Standards are intended to facilitate the effective engagement of all care providers in delivering high-quality care for patients of all ages, including those with sputum smear-positive, sputum smear-negative, and extra pulmonary tuberculosis, tuberculosis caused by drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (M.

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  • Chapter 7 - Monopoly, oligopoly, and monopolistic competition. Our agenda in chapter 7 is to develop more carefully and fully the concept of economic surplus introduced in part 1 and to investigate the conditions under which unregulated markets generate the largest possible economic surplus. We will also explore why attempts to interfere with market outcomes often lead to unintended and undesired consequences.

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  • Chapter 10 - Using economics to make better policy decisions. After completing this chapter, students will be able to: Describe how the Scarcity Principle applies to choices involving health, use the incentive principle to explain why health care costs have been rising so rapidly, discuss pollution taxes and effluent permits as a means to reduce the cost of improved air quality,...

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  • The Modern-Day Physician No greater opportunity, responsibility, or obligation can fall to the lot of a human being than to become a physician. In the care of the suffering, [the physician] needs technical skill, scientific knowledge, and human understanding. . . . Tact, sympathy, and understanding are expected of the physician, for the patient is no mere collection of symptoms, signs, disordered functions, damaged organs, and disturbed emotions. [The patient] is human, fearful, and hopeful, seeking relief, help, and reassurance.

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  • Principles of Patient Care Evidence-Based Medicine Evidence-based medicine refers to the concept that clinical decisions are formally supported by data, preferably data that are derived from prospectively designed, randomized, controlled clinical trials. This is in sharp contrast to anecdotal experience, which may often be biased. Unless they are attuned to the importance of using larger, more objective studies for making decisions, even the most experienced physicians can be influenced by recent encounters with selected patients.

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  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders in the Western world. In recent years, there have been many developments in the field of GERD. At least, all these developments have helped to find new diagnostic procedures and different treatment concepts. As well known, GERD affects patients quality of life and leads to a significant economic burden on society. Therefore, all further investigations should primary aim in an improvement of patients daily life.

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  • As nations seek to strengthen their health systems, they are increasingly looking to primary health care (PHC) to provide a clear and comprehensive sense of direction. The World Health Report 2008 analyzes how primary health care reforms, that embody the principles of universal access, equity and social justice, are an essential

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  • Aboriginal peoples have distinctive perspectives and understandings, deriving from their cultures and histories and embodied in Aboriginal languages. Research that has Aboriginal experience as its subject matter must reflect these perspectives and understandings. In the past, research concerning Aboriginal peoples has usually been initiated outside the Aboriginal community and carried out by non Aboriginal people. Aboriginal people have had almost no opportunity to correct misinformation or to challenge ethnocentric and racist interpretations.

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  • The aims of organic agriculture are summarised in the four principles of health, ecology, fairness and care which inspire the worldwide organic movement. See Annex A. The East African organic products standard has been written for organic production in East Africa and has been adapted to conditions in East Africa. The purpose is to have a single organic standard for organic agriculture production under East African conditions.

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  • The authors, who all have wide experience in teaching and practising adult nursing, collaborated to write this book, which evolved from a clinical skills module. It became apparent that students loved learning the introductory nursing skills, but there were few easily accessible texts to support their learning. This book is therefore aimed at nursing students embarking on their nursing education, although some of it will also be suitable for care assistants who are involved in delivering direct nursing care to patients.

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  • Musculoskeletal diseases are the most common causes of disability in developed countries throughout the world, and in the United Kingdom, a signifi - cant rheumatic disease affects one in seven of the population. They also affect people from all walks of life and of all age groups including babies and the very elderly. Rheumatic diseases are so common that it is inevitable that every nurse will at some time provide care for a rheumatic patient. It is therefore essential that they have some knowledge of rheumatology nursing.

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  • The beginning of the new millennium was marked by the announcement that the vast majority of the human genome had been sequenced. This milestone in the exploration of the human genome was preceded by numerous conceptual and technological advances. They include, among others, the elucidation of the DNA double-helix structure, the discovery of restriction enzymes and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the development and automatization of DNA sequencing, and the generation of genetic and physical maps by the Human Genome Project (HGP).

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  • Techniques for non-invasive Breslow determination use either mechanical or electromagnetic waves. A wave is the propagation of a perturbation inducing reversible variations of local physical properties. It transports energy but no matter. Ultrasounds and optical waves are used mainly because of their innocuousness. In the next paragraphs, ultrasonography then several optical techniques will be developed. Basic physical principles of each type of wave interaction with skin will be described then accuracy of Breslow index determination by such techniques will be given.

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  • The overarching thesis of this book is that the prevailing biomolecular model of disease is too restricted for clinical use. It took me many years to come to that conclusion. I was pushed to come to that view through my experiences with patients who did not fit the narrow model. Too many exceptions forced me to find an expanded model of disease. These are the stories of those patients and my interaction with them as a physician over a fiftyyear period.

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