Principles of evolution

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  • This small volume is based upon three lectures on Eugenics delivered at Oberlin College in April, 1910. In preparing them for publication many extensions and a few additions have been made in order to present the subject more adequately and to include some very recent results of eugenic investigation. Few subjects have come into deserved prominence more rapidly than has Eugenics. Biologists, social workers, thoughtful students and observers of human life everywhere, have felt the growing necessity for some kind of action leading to what are now recognized as eugenic ends.

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  • The demand for a new edition of "Evolution, Old and New," gives me an opportunity of publishing Butler's latest revision of his work. The second edition of "Evolution, Old and New," which was published in 1882 and re-issued with a new title-page in 1890, was merely a re-issue of the first edition with a new preface, an appendix, and an index. At a later date, though I cannot say precisely when, Butler revised the text of the book in view of a future edition. The corrections that he made are mainly verbal and do not, I think, affect the argument to any considerable extent. Butler,...

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  • Today many school students are shielded from one of the most important concepts in modern science: evolution. In engaging and conversational style, "Teaching About Evolution and the Nature of Science" provides a well-structured framework for understanding and teaching evolution. Written for teachers, parents, and community officials as well as scientists and educators, this book describes how evolution reveals both the great diversity and similarity among the Earth's organisms

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  • When the history of the Nineteenth Century--'the Wonderful Century,' as it has, not inaptly, been called--comes to be written, a foremost place must be assigned to that great movement by which evolution has become the dominant factor in scientific progress, while its influence has been felt in every sphere of human speculation and effort. At the beginning of the Century, the few who ventured to entertain evolutionary ideas were regarded by their scientific contemporaries, as wild visionaries or harmless 'cranks'--by the world at large, as ignorant 'quacks' or 'designing atheists.

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  • Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy.[1] Biology is a vast subject containing many subdivisions, topics, and disciplines.

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  • The history of Computational Fluid Dynamics, or CFD for short,, started in the early 1970’s. Around that time, it became an acronym for a combination of physics, numerical mathematics, and, to some extent, computer sciences employed to simulate fluid flows. The beginning of CFD was triggered by the availability of increasingly more powerful mainframes and the advances in CFD are still tightly coupled to the evolution of computer technology.

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  • THE title of the present work is in itself a sufficiently clear indication of the contents. In it, the attempt is made to show the connexion between two sciences whose subject−matters are closely interrelated, but which have, for the most part, followed wholly divergent paths. Physiology and psychology cover, between them, the field of vital phenomena; they deal with the facts of life at large, and in particular with the facts of human life.

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  • PHILOSOPHY.--The aim of philosophy is to seek the explanation of all things: the quest is for the first causes of everything, and also how all things are, and finally why, with what design, with a view to what, things are. That is why, taking "principle" in all the senses of the word, it has been called the science of first principles. Philosophy has always existed. Religions--all religions--are philosophies. They are indeed the most complete. But, apart from religions, men have sought the causes and principles of everything and endeavoured to acquire general ideas.

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  • France holds a rather unusual position in the field of evolutionary biology. Whereas French naturalists from Buffon, Cuvier and Lamarck onwards made great discoveries in centuries past, French biologists missed the turning when it came to genetics. Until the 1970s, most French biologists were convinced that genetics was not as interesting as developmental science (some "rare species", for example R. Chandebois, still hold this view). For them, the general principles of heredity resided in the cytoplasm rather than in the genome.

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  • Node-Level Architecture Analysis This chapter analyzes node-level software radio architecture. Attention turns to the internal functions, components, and design rules within a radio node. The canonical node architecture partitions software-radio functions into segments within which functions are functionally cohesive, and between which the segments are data-coupled. This approach conforms to well-established principles of structured design [183, 184]. SD has been superseded in contemporary practice by object-oriented technology (OOT) [185]....

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  • As noted above, the number of licensed vaccines and the strategies for their best use change constantly as new products, new indications, and new information become available. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regularly amends immunization recommendations to reflect the evolution of vaccines and vaccination policy in the United States.

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  • This book provides a modern and basic introduction to a branch of international law constantly gaining in importance in international life, namely international humanitarian law (the law of armed conflict). It is constructed in a way suitable for self-study. The subject matters are discussed in self-contained chapters, allowing each to be studied independently of the others.

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  • Bearing the foregoing in mind, lived experiences have been carefully selected and synchronised with generic ideas and principles of project management. By starting with the evolution of project management, the objective was to locate the discipline in its historical context, thus creating awareness to the project manager that he/she will be practising within a community of professionals. This is followed by the definition of the concept of project, which concomitantly elucidates related terms to which the project manager will find recourse from time-to-time.

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  • V an isometry, as in the theorem of Plancherel, is not just a weighted L2-norm on some measure space. This is due to the fact that the back transformation Z has a different expression on each branch, and this is caused by the ramification of the domain. It is not clear to us how one could find a family of generalized eigenfunctions leading to a spectral representation of A.

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  • Ever since the time of Hippocrates attempts have been made to classify tuberculosis. Not until the 19th century was a clear clinical division made between acute and chronic forms (Fournet, 1839); later there was a tendency to describe these forms as ‘galloping consumption’ and ‘consumption’; to-day they can be accurately described, not only on clinical grounds, but pathologically, radiologically and pathogenetically as ‘malig nant primary’ and ‘advance secondary’. The first clinico-pathological classification was by Bard (1898, 1927).

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  • Upon completion of this lesson, the successful participant will be able to: Describe the rationale for network security; describe the three principles of network security; identify risks, threats, vulnerabilities and countermeasures; discuss the three states of information and identify threats and appropriate countermeasures for each state;...

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  • Periodontal disease progression is episodic in nature on a tooth site level, but more recently, it has been realized that it is principally patient-based rather than site-based (Zia et al., 2011); the host related risk factors could be the key to better understand disease evolution. The available evidence shows that important risk factors for periodontal disease relate to poor oral hygiene, tobacco use, excessive alcohol consumption, stress, and diabetes mellitus (Laurina et al., 2009; Taylor & Borgnakke, 2008).

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  • Definition and Basic Elements ● Development is an ongoing, dynamic, long-term change or evolution that occurs because of various learning experiences. (London and Mauer, 2004) ● Leader development ○ is the “expansion of a person’s capacity to be effective in leadership roles and processes” (McCauley and Van Velsor, 2004:2) ○ focuses on the individual and involves providing leaders with the tools that they need to improve their effectiveness in the various roles they play.

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  • In this chapter we aim to explain the principles and evolutions of the testing and type approval of the GSM Mobile Equipment (ME). After having recalled the context at the end of the 1980s (paragraph 17.2), we outline the technical background (paragraph 17.3) and we explain the first step of the type approval, i.e. the ‘‘interim type approval’’(paragraph 17.4). Then we describe the TBR regime (paragraph 17.5) and how it evolved to cope with phase 2 (paragraph 17.6) and phase 21 (paragraph 17.7)....

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  • In this chapter we discuss relations between information theory and statistical mechanics. We show that the canonical and grand canonical distributions can be obtained from Shannon’s principle of maximum uncertainty [1, 2, 3]. Moreover, the time evolution of the entropy of an isolated system and the H theorem are discussed.

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