Learning objectives of this chapter include: Distinguish between the private and public sector approaches to project evaluation; explain the net present value approach to project evaluation and compare it with the internal rate of return and the benefit-cost ratio; show why, under ideal conditions, public sector projects should strive to maximise consumer (and producer) surplus;...
This book is based on a doctoral thesis completed at the Faculty of Law,
University of Cambridge. It benefited from research funding provided
by Gonville and Caius College and the Faculty of Law in Cambridge,
and from the hospitality and generous assistance of Professors Jürgen
Basedow and Reinhard Zimmermann during a period at the Max
Planck Institute for Comparative and International Private Law in
Hamburg, and of Professor George Bermann during a period as a
Visiting Scholar at Columbia University....
The military health system, as well as the private health care sector, has experienced rapid growth in pharmaceutical expenditures. In 2002 alone, the Department of Defense spent about $3 billion on outpatient pharmacy benefits. As part of an effort to redesign the TRICARE pharmacy benefit to save costs, the Department
In this chapter, the learning objectives are: Discuss the growth in benefits costs and the underlying reasons for that growth, explain the major provisions of employee benefits programs, discuss how employee benefits in the United States compare with those in other countries, describe the effects of benefits management on cost and workforce quality,...
The world of IT is always evolving, but in every area there are stable, core concepts that anyone just setting out needed to know last year, needs to know this year, and will still need to know next year. The purpose of the Foundations series is to identify these concepts and present them in a way that gives you the strongest possible starting point, no matter what your endeavor.
Network Security Foundations provides essential knowledge about the principles and techniques used to protect computers and networks from hackers, viruses, and other threats.
Extreme weather is hitting all regions of the globe with increasing
severity. Despite the damage that can and will be caused from these
extreme weather events, certain industries will nevertheless benefit
and certain industries will be hurt. It is the purpose of this book to identify
and evaluate the sectors, industries, companies, and more specifically the
particular stocks, bonds, and futures that will be the winners and losers
as extreme weather events continue to impact the Earth. Every investment
idea in this book will work under the current, global climate condition.
Regulators to date have opted for a relatively "non-interventionist" approach to
environmental accounting reform. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, for instance,
through surveys and case studies, has identified weaknesses in private sector environmental
accounting and promotes the diffusion of accounting "best practices." This outreach- and
communication-based approach may be expanded upon in the future, however. There
currently are calls from some environmental advocates for more aggressive regulatory actions
in this area, such as mandated environmental accounting.
An investor in a forex fund should be sophisticated enough to understand the risks associated
with forex trading. Many investors would be interested in forex funds if they had the
opportunity. Because advertising of the fund and any other non-personal communications are
prohibited, and the media has touted the risks over the benefits, investors must be sought in more
direct and creative ways. A trader may find that in addition to family and close friends, many
colleagues and casual acquaintances may be potential investors.
From 2005 through the first half of 2007, construction was one of the
most important growth sectors in the Turkish economy. Private con-
struction projects and public investments supported this growth. But,
by the end of 2007, construction activity stagnated. Rising prices of
commodities, including iron, copper, steel and cement have con-
tributed to increased construction costs.
The ability of PHI to reduce demand pressures on the public system has nonetheless proven to be
constrained. Increases in the population covered by PHI in Australia and Ireland have not resulted in
unambiguous signs of decline in the level of waiting (Colombo and Tapay, 2003 and 2004b). PHI
membership has not only shifted demand across public and private hospitals but has also increased overall
demand, thereby limiting the impact on waiting times.
The Public Health Agency of Canada estimates that during the pandemic 15 to 35
percent of the population will become sick and be unable to go to school or work. This
does not include those that may contract the virus and feel ill, but continue their usual
activities. The most significant impact on the private sector is likely to be disruption due
to employee absenteeism. Employees will be off work due to sickness or having to stay
home and care for sick family members. Schools may also be closed forcing parents to
stay home and care for children.
For accounts with managed rates, we can make rate changes immediately if the change is of benefit to you.
For accounts with managed rates where the account is a fixed term deposit or denominated in US dollars or another non
European Economic Area (EEA) currency, we will personally notify you at least 30 days before making a change to the rate
which is not favourable to you.
For accounts with managed rates where the account is denominated in sterling, euros or another EEA currency or is not
a fixed term deposit, we will personally notify you at least 2 months before...
The risk that one will outlive one’s money is best referred to as “longevity risk.”
The traditional way that savers have managed this risk is by purchasing life annuities
or by having annuitylike cash flow streams purchased for them through defined-
benefit (DB) pension plans. (Social Security can also be understood, at least from
the viewpoint of the recipient, as an inflation-indexed life annuity.) DB pension
plans are declining in importance, however, and a great many workers do not have
such a plan.
On the other hand, scholars have argued that adopting environmental and social policies can
destroy shareholder wealth (e.g., Friedman 1970; Clotfelter 1985; Navarro 1988; Galaskiewicz 1997). In
its simplest form the argument goes that sustainability may be just another type of agency cost where
managers receive private benefits from embedding environmental and social policies in the company, but
doing so has negative financial implications (Baloti and Hanks 1999; Brown, Helland, and Smith 2006).
The ultimate purpose of ecosystem capital accounts
is to assess whether economic use of ecosystems
results in an increase and/or improvement, a steady
state, or a degradation of the natural assets which
together are used as economic resources, consumed
by the economy as free externalities, and/or directly
supply a range of free services to individuals or
humankind as a whole. As the measurement of
ecosystem capital on the basis of private benefits
is necessarily incomplete, it can be misleading.
Forests ecosystems provide a multiplicity of goods and services of crucial ecological, social and
economic importance for the sustainability of our society. Forest goods and services represent the
benefits that human populations derive, directly or indirectly, from forest ecosystems functions
(MEA 2005) and are therefore an inherently anthropogenic concept, since it is the presence of human
beings as valuing agents that enables the translation of the basic ecological structures and processes
of forests into value-laden entities. ...
Designers still have the option of three-tier or n-tier application
designs; but, they now have the two-tier option again. The sim-
plicity of two-tier client/server is attractive, but security issues
(databases have huge attack surfaces) may cause many designers
to want three-tier server architectures with the web server in the
demilitarized zone (DMZ).
It is likely that web services will be the way we federate heteroge-
neous database systems. ...
Cities are engines of growth and they will be
critical to our economic recovery. The Coalition
Government is taking tough and decisive action to
equip Britain for long-term success by restoring
health to the public inances and conidence in
the economy through a balanced approach led
by private sector growth. But this growth will not
occur in the abstract. It will be created in individual
places where people and businesses work, trade
Looking more closely at the revenue inputs, two clear con-
cepts emerge regarding the hedge fund business model.
First, because hedge funds can be opportunistic with how
they invest, both the manager and investor stand to benefit
tremendously when the manager performs well. Second,
there is only one consistently reliable revenue input for
funds: the management fee. Not surprisingly, the manag-
ers we work with who are most sustainability-minded think
of their revenues in terms of their management fee alone.