Private expenditure

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  • The military health system, as well as the private health care sector, has experienced rapid growth in pharmaceutical expenditures. In 2002 alone, the Department of Defense spent about $3 billion on outpatient pharmacy benefits. As part of an effort to redesign the TRICARE pharmacy benefit to save costs, the Department

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  • In this chapter, students will be able to understand: Illustrate how economists combine consumption and investment to depict an aggregate expenditures schedule for a private closed economy, analyze how changes in equilibrium real GDP can occur in the aggregate expenditures model and describe how those changes relate to the multiplier, identify and describe the nature and causes of "recessionary expenditure gaps" and "inflationary expenditure gaps".

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  • After reading this chapter, you should be able to: Illustrate how economists combine consumption and investment to depict an aggregate expenditures schedule for a private closed economy, discuss the three characteristics of the equilibrium level of real GDP in a private closed economy, analyze how changes in equilibrium real GDP can occur in the aggregate expenditures model and describe how those changes relate to the multiplier,...

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  • The most frequently used method in the literature is via indirect estimates from observed expenditure data, building on Pissarides and Weber (1989), who use food expenditure survey data to estimate the underreporting of British self-employed. The consumption-based method- ology has been applied in a host of settings (Lyssiotou, Pashardes and Stengos (2004), Feldman and Slemrod (2007), Gorodnichenko, Martinez-Vazquez and Sabirianova (2009), Braguinsky, Mityakov and Liscovich (2010)).

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  • This problem is evident, for example, in ongoing efforts to replace the functionally obsolete Brent Spence Bridge that connects Cincinnati, Ohio, with Covington, Kentucky, carrying traffic from two large interstate highways across the Ohio River. Despite its critical importance to regional commerce and the economic vitality of both cities, project planners have not been able to find a funding source for the $2.4 billion needed to begin work.

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  • This high level of spending extends well into the pay period: in weeks beginning 8 to 14 days after payday, spending is still 5 percent higher than in the omitted category. The final distance category captures the significant increase in spending due to overlap with the next payday.13 To further verify that our baseline results are not driven by our parameterization of the distance measure, we regress log expenditure on separate dummy variables for each starting distance from payday.

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  • The Health Metrics Network (HMN) was launched in 2005 to help countries and other partners improve global health by strengthening the systems that generate health-related information for evidence-based decision-making. HMN is the first global health partnership that focuses on two core requirements of health system strengthening in low and low-middle income countries. First, the need to enhance entire health information and statistical systems, rather than focus only upon specific diseases.

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  • Many a reader who has followed the argument this far may be tempted to remonstrate that it is all well and good to speak of Government's having the responsibility to impose taxes and determine expenditures for such "social" purposes as controlling pollution or training the hard-core unemployed, but that the problems are too urgent to wait on the slow course of political processes, that the exercise of social responsibility by businessmen is a quicker and surer way to solve pressing current problems.

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  • Operating cost items, except those for farm raised inputs, were taken directly from survey responses to questions about the dairy expenditures for each item. Homegrown harvested and grazed feed costs were computed using market prices for each feed item to estimate the opportunity cost of feed fed to dairy cattle. State average market prices were used to value the harvested feed items fed to dairy cows on conventional dairies (USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service).

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  • Chapter 28 - The aggregate expenditures model. In this chapter, you will learn to: Aggregate expenditures for a private closed economy, characteristics of equilibrium real GDP in a private closed economy, changes in equilibrium real GDP and the multiplier, adding the government and international sectors, recessionary and inflationary expenditure gaps.

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  • Chapter 11 - The aggregate expenditures model. The chapter begins with the simple version of the AE model: that of a closed, private economy. The equilibrium GDP is determined and multiplier effects are briefly reviewed. The simplified “closed” economy is then “opened” to show how it would be affected by exports and imports.

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  • Globalization exerts positive and negative impacts on health and has been linked to reduced government expenditures on health, education, and social programs, and restructured workplace and home life. Globalization is altering gender roles and relationships and influencing health determinants. Asymmetric rights and responsibilities, labor market segregation, consumption patterns, and discrimination are influenced differently by globalization and affect men and women’s health in distinct ways.

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  • It is in compliance with the earnest requests of colleagues and friends that I have embarked on the task of editing a handbook of governmental accounting. Practitioners in the private sector, public administrators, and students in colleges and universities will find this handbook a useful reference. We hope our readers from a diverse range of fields will use it to gain understanding and familiarity with government accounting concepts.

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  • This primer gives a brief glimpse of available data on health care costs, and summarizes the impact of spending growth on various parts of society. The National Health Expenditure Accounts (NHEA), the source for several of the analyses shown, present the costs of care by type of health service or product (such as hospital care, physician services, or prescription drugs), sources of funds (such as private insurance, Medicare, Medicaid, or out-of-pocket by the individual patient), and types of sponsors (private business, households, and government).

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  • Several figures in this primer show the cumulative percent change in private health insurance or health insurance premiums (Figures 11, 15, and 20). These cumulative increases may vary from figure to figure because different years are used, the data sources differ, and what is being measured varies.

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  • A second source for private sector expenditure on R&D is the “EU Industrial R&D Investment Scoreboard”, which has been conducted by the Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS) that is part of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission. The annual Scoreboard presents information on the world’s top 1400 companies ranked by their investments in R&D. It contains data drawn from companies’ accounts, most recently for the fiscal year 2009. 16 R&D indicators, such as R&D intensity, vary in line with the business cycle.

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  • On the other hand, PHI does not play as significant a role as might be expected in some other countries without universal public coverage or where there are significant out-of-pocket payments. For example, while the Korean National Health Insurance system pays 44% of total health cost, a significant degree of out-of-pocket expenditure remains (41%).

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  • Vietnam Economic Monitor Spring 2002 The World Bank in Vietnam Vietnam Economic Monitor – Spring 2002 TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................3 Part I. Recent Economic Developments ..........................................................................4 External difficulties Industrial Sector Leads Growth as Agriculture Slows Domestic Drivers of Growth Private Investment Demand Macroeconomic Policies 4 6 7 9 11 Part II. Structural Reforms...........................................

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  • In an effort to modernize Medicare insurance, the Federal government has allowed private insurers who meet strict requirements to sell private insurance to the elderly, as a substitute for 'traditional' Medicare insurance. There are many forms of private insurance now being sold to the elderly, including some managed care plan types. Managed care plans restrict the choice of physicians and hospitals to include a set selected by the insurance plan, over whom the plan has more control in terms of utilization and expenditures.

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  • In a simple world of full Ricardian Equivalence, households increase their savings by the present value of future taxes needed to repay government debt. Their desired bond holdings thus rise by the exact increase in government debt issuance. Private consumption declines to offset the increase in public expenditure, leaving GDP unchanged. The long-term interest rate therefore remains constant. 5 In this stylised view, changes of the government debt/GDP ratio should not affect the future path of interest rates, nominal or real, in any way at all.

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