Xem 1-20 trên 56 kết quả Probability assessment
  • USDA’s Economic Research Service (ERS) projects that average per capita food consumption for 67 low-income countries will increase in the next decade. ERS also projects that the number of people failing to meet their nutritional requirements will decline from 774 million in 2000 to 694 million in 2010, providing an improved outlook for global food security. But the gains are not uniform across countries and in many food insecurity will probably intensify.

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  • Taking the ACT Assessment or SAT exam as a part of the college admissions process is a rite of passage for millions of teenagers across the country and in many parts of the world. It is probably not something you look forward to, but it cannot and should not be avoided for long.

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  • THERE IS probably no single course in “laboratory safety or chemical safety” at your college or university. Why not? Chemistry curricula have developed over many decades with a focus on the main topics of chemistry: organic, inorganic, physical chemistry, analytical chemistry, and (more recently) biochemistry. For decades, the topic of chemical safety was included at the margins of lab courses, mostly taught in a small way as a footnote to various lab experiments and procedures. Some chemists and chemistry teachers were aware of the importance of safety, while many were not.

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  • In an increasingly complex world, decision analysis has a major role to play in helping decision makers to gain a greater understanding of the problems they face. The main aim of this book is to make decision analysis accessible to its largest group of potential users: managers and administrators in business and public sector organizations, most of whom, although expert at their work, are not mathematicians or statisticians.

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  • The text of this Norton Critical Edition is that of the first edition (dated 1818 but probably issued in late 1817), which was published posthumously. The editor has spelled out amper­ sands and made superscript letters lowercase. The novel, which is fully annotated, is followed by the two canceled chapters that comprise Persuasion's original ending. "Backgrounds and Contexts" collects contemporary assess­ ments of Jane Austen as well as materials relating to the social issues of the day. Included is an excerpt from William Hayley's 1785 "Essay on Old Maids";...

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  • The EU Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) is probably the most significant legislative instrument in the water field that was introduced on an international basis for many years. It moves towards integrated environmental management with key objectives to prevent any further deterioration of water bodies, and protect and enhance the status of aquatic ecosystems and associated wetlands. It aims to promote sustainable water consumption and will contribute to mitigating the effects of floods and droughts.

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  • Safety/Reliability engineering did not develop as a unified discipline, but grew out of the integration of a number of activities, previously the province of various branches of engineering. Since no human activity can enjoy zero risk, and no equipment has a zero rate of failure, there has emerged a safety technology for optimizing risk. This attempts to balance the risk of a given activity against its benefits and seeks to assess the need for further risk reduction depending upon the cost.

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  • Managers have a tough job in the 21st century workplace. There is constant pressure to achieve results, yet constant distractions occur: too little of key resources including money and time, and a pace of change like never before in human history. Furthermore, the stage on which all this takes place is competitive and this fact too adds to the demands to succeed and to keep ahead. Probably management jobs were never easy, but these days they can be downright difficult. But managers have one key asset that makes undertaking their task easier. What is that?...

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  • Tax compliance researchers begin with the supposition that people compare the marginal benefit of noncompliance (reduced tax payments, for example) with the expected marginal costs, which account for both the likelihood of punishment and its severity. That perspective provides an approach for evaluating the effective penalties uninsured people could anticipate under an individual health mandate.

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  • Imagine the opposite. For simplicity assume that A is the one the captives do not buy. It should be clear that the shoppers will not buy any good that captive do not buy so the retailer will not sell A at all. But one can always lower the price of A to such level that it is still above the marginal cost and the captives buy both goods, a strategy that increases pro t. In terms of Figure 1 B is the only good sold if the price point is in region B. For any point in this region the retailer can x the price of...

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  • Use of vocabulary is an important aspect of academic writing. Again, following Storch and Tapper (2009), we examined the occurrences of vocabulary in the Academic Word List (AWL) developed by Coxhead (2000). The AWL consists of 570 word families derived from a corpus of academic texts drawn from our ‘sub- corpora’ from arts, commerce, law, and science (see Coxhead, 2000 for details). These words are academic words that are found across disciplines and comprise 9-10% of an academic text (Storch & Tapper, 2009).

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  • Research suggests that non-expert individuals are typically overconfident; they overestimate the quality of their own abilities or knowledge (Svenson 1981, Weinstein 1980) and state extreme probabilities more often than they should. Work in economic theory, particularly with business-related forecasting, has provided further support for this behavioral phenomenon (Camerer and Lovallo, 1999). The reasons for overconfidence when answering trivia questions are a subject of intense debate among decision theorists (Ayton and McClelland 1997). Three prominent explanations have emerged.

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  • The relationship between air pollution and premature mortality is most often studied using time-series analysis of daily observations of the number of deaths and pollution levels. These studies capture the effects of short-term exposure to pollution on the probability of dying. The underlying assumption is that there is a distribution of susceptibility to the effects of air pollution in any population. People who are in a weakened physical state or who have a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or cardio-pulmonary problems are thought to be the most vulnerable.

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  • Withholding further diagnostic testing and anticoagulant treatment in those patients with an unlikely clinical probability and a normal D-dimer level, which constitutes 30–50% of all referred patients, is safe. The remaining patients need to undergo (repeated) compression ultrasonography. An alternative approach is to perform a whole-leg imaging test on the day of referral. The advantage of this approach is that it eliminates the need for a repeat test (and may even obviate the probability assessment and D-dimer testing).

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  • Most of the VOCs probably derived from indoor sources. However, the wall cavity was an apparent source of acetaldehyde, toluene and xylenes and the belly space was a source of 2-butanone, lower volatility aldehydes and aromatic hydrocarbons. Indoor minus outdoor VOC concentrations varied with time. Adjusted formaldehyde concentrations exhibited the most temporal variability with concentrations ranging from 25 µg m-3 to 128 µg m-3 and the lowest concentrations occurring in winter months when indoor RH was low.

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  • A variety of evidence supports the role of design in enhancing firm performance. New research undertaken for this study also shows that firms with higher design intensity have a greater probability of carrying out product innovation and that design expenditure has a positive association with firm productivity growth. Nonetheless, the multifaceted nature of design makes it difficult to isolate from more traditional factors affecting performance, such as market conditions or investment. Research is also hampered by the lack of commonly agreed statistical measures.

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  • River Malewa and River Turasha are the only rivers in the drainage basin. The Malewa River drains off Sattima, its headwaters reaching up to the highest upland valleys. It plunges down the Sattima Escarpment onto the Ol Bolossat plain through a magnificent steep walled gorge, with walls nearly 1,000 feet high, the Malewa ndogo gorge. The river cuts a deep trench across the Ol Bolossat plain passing very close to the south end of the lake and separated from it by a divide of very low relief probably not more than 30 feet. The river turns south and cuts...

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  • Although most car-sharing has been established, been carried on, and has grown in terms of numbers of participants, without any form of public support being provided, the presence of national support could enable car-sharing to develop more effectively. Certain legal restrictions hinder the development of car-sharing at present, although they are probably less of a hindrance than lack of awareness in different organizations which have the possibility to boost the use of car-sharing. Some antiquated legal hindrances to the development of car- sharing should be altered.

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  • This document was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment (OHEA) within the Office of Research and Development, with major contract funding provided by the Indoor Air Division within the Office of Air and Radiation's Office of Atmospheric and Indoor Air Programs. Steven P. Bayard1 was the OHEA project manager with overall responsibility for the contents of this report and its conclusions. Other OHEA staff members responsible for the scientific content of sections of this document are Jennifer Jinot and Aparna M. Koppikar.

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  • The results of this risk-assessment process will enable you to develop alternative internal audit plans to address a variety of risks across your organisation. An effective audit plan provides a systematic means to assign risks into high, moderate and low categories. Once risks are assessed, the chief audit executive should work with the audit committee and senior management to prioritise organisational risks and determine the competencies and skill sets needed in the internal audit function to address high-priority risks and key stakeholder needs....

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