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  • text is designed for an introductory probability course at the university level for sophomores, juniors, and seniors in mathematics, physical and social sciences, engineering, and computer science. It presents a thorough treatment of ideas and techniques necessary for a firm understanding of the subject. The text is also recommended for use in discrete probability courses. The material is organized so that the discrete and continuous probability discussions are presented in a separate, but parallel, manner.

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  • It is not possible to produce an adequate aesthetic theory by considering aesthetic experiences and aesthetic objects as if they belonged to entirely independent domains. 7 This is true first of all because qualities such as beauty and ugliness inhere in aesthetic objects only to the extent that they stand in certain specific relations, both causal and intentional, to experiencing subjects (a thesis which does not amount to the claim that aesthetic qualities are `merely subjective').

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  • Nowadays, there are large amounts of data available to train statistical machine translation systems. However, it is not clear whether all the training data actually help or not. A system trained on a subset of such huge bilingual corpora might outperform the use of all the bilingual data. This paper studies such issues by analysing two training data selection techniques: one based on approximating the probability of an indomain corpus; and another based on infrequent n-gram occurrence.

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  • PCFGs can be accurate, they suffer from vocabulary coverage problems: treebanks are small and lexicons induced from them are limited. The reason for this treebank-centric view in PCFG learning is 3-fold: the English treebank is fairly large and English morphology is fairly simple, so that in English, the treebank does provide mostly adequate lexical coverage1 ; Lexicons enumerate analyses, but don’t provide probabilities for them; and, most importantly, the treebank and the external lexicon are likely to follow different annotation schemas, reflecting different linguistic perspectives.

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  • These allow the weight of the cup to be distributed evenly between two hands. The size and shape of the handles are important to enable the user to get a comfortable grip. Handles are often large so that all the fingers can grip the handle. Cups with moulded or mouldable handles These give a more personalised grip, fitting the shape of the user's hand.. Some cups are designed with comfort in mind, others have bendable handles and are modular so that they can be tailored to suit individual requirements. A personalised grip can be added to...

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  • The origins of this book lie in our earlier book Random Processes: A Mathematical Approach for Engineers, Prentice Hall, 1986. This book began as a second edition to the earlier book and the basic goal remains unchanged | to introduce the fundamental ideas and mechanics of random processes to engineers in a way that accurately reects the underlying mathematics, but does not require an extensive mathematical background and does not belabor detailed general proofs when simple cases suce to get the basic ideas across....

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  • Doctoral students have often requested concrete examples and guidelines from us. On the other hand, many guidebooks are at a more general level than the requested instruction. Ideally, adequate guidance would be conducted by a supervising professor, or a research group, but this is not always the case. This guidebook attempts to provide tangible tips that have been identified as beneficial for writing articles. Once someone tries to concretise the process of writing they are also easier to criticise.

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  • There are a number of studies on the development of leadership skills. From the review of the literature, there are 11 most commonly identified skills that are characteristic of strong leaders. These skills include: Understanding the needs and characteristics of the post; Communicating; Knowing and using the resources of the group; Planning; Controlling group performance; Setting the example; Sharing leadership; Counseling; Evaluating; Effective teaching; and Representing the group. These skills will be discussed and selected in the following survey. ...

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  • Today, the term reliability is part of our everyday language, especially when speaking about the functionality of a product. A very reliable product is a product that fulfils its function at all times and under all operating conditions. The technical definition for reliability differs only slightly by expanding this common definition by probability: reliability is the probability that a product does not fail under given functional und environmental conditions during a defined period of time (VDI guidelines 4001).

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  • Member States and thus differences in investor protection. Some Member States apply a so- called 'strict' liability regime, where the depositary has an immediate obligation to return the lost asset to the UCITS, while others take the view that the loss of assets does not always imply an unjustifiable failure to perform its duties on the part of the depositary that should lead to liability for that depositary. As a consequence, the liability standard is not the same in all Member States. ...

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  • We control for risk exposures in measuring the funds' ability to outperform following the four factor approach advocated by Carhart (1997). We start with a Pan-European four-factor model.

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  • The Volcker Rule prohibitions come into effect on July 21, 2012, regardless of whether the regulations are fi nal- ized by that point. 37 Banking entities have a further pe- riod of two years from the effective date to comply with the Volcker Rule.

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  • The complementary in shopping does not eliminate the possibility to discriminate the shoppers and the captives when the two goods are complements. Rather, it gives an additional ability to do such discrimination without lowering prices too much as the shoppers have a stronger incentive to shop at one place. We were unable to solve our model when these costs are present as this task requires nding the marginal distributions as well as the distribution of the sum of the two prices.

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  • Finally, the analysis of national sanctioning regimes carried out by the Commission, along with the Committees of Supervisors (now transformed into European Supervisory Authorities) has shown a number of divergences and weaknesses which may have a negative impact on the proper application of EU legislation, the effectiveness of financial supervision, and ultimately on competition, stability and integrity of financial markets and consumer protection.

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  • A second source for private sector expenditure on R&D is the “EU Industrial R&D Investment Scoreboard”, which has been conducted by the Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS) that is part of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission. The annual Scoreboard presents information on the world’s top 1400 companies ranked by their investments in R&D. It contains data drawn from companies’ accounts, most recently for the fiscal year 2009. 16 R&D indicators, such as R&D intensity, vary in line with the business cycle.

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  • However, we believe that NOP officials need to further improve program administration and strengthen their management controls to ensure more effective enforcement of program requirements when serious violations, including operations that market product as organic while under suspension, are found. In addition, they need to strengthen their oversight of certifying agents and organic operations to ensure that organic products are consistently and uniformly meeting NOP standards.

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  • On schemes involving different types of engineering, design may be let out in separate ‘packages’ to different specialist consultants. For instance the design of an industrial estate may be packaged into – roads and drainage; water supply and sewerage; power supplies, and landscaping. For large schemes the promoter may appoint an overall consultant with wide experience to co-ordinate the inputs of the specialist design consultants.

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  • Imagine the opposite. For simplicity assume that A is the one the captives do not buy. It should be clear that the shoppers will not buy any good that captive do not buy so the retailer will not sell A at all. But one can always lower the price of A to such level that it is still above the marginal cost and the captives buy both goods, a strategy that increases pro t. In terms of Figure 1 B is the only good sold if the price point is in region B. For any point in this region the retailer can x the price of...

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  • Fourth, this study applies new methodologies which have never been applied to emerging markets. For instance, Chapter 5 explores the determinants of risk-adjusted mutual fund performance using multidimensional regression in addition to the common approach, which is to use a zero-cost trading strategy. This alternative methodology can explore several factors simultaneously while controlling the effect between one and another. Using the two methods allows us to examine determinants of fund performance statistically and economically and it provides more meaningful results.

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  • The independent variable in the present study was media presentation mode, being single mode (sound only) and double mode (sound and text). The dependent variables were learners’ English listening comprehension and cognitive load. There were two tests in the present study. The first test, for examining the participants' listening comprehension, was given immediately after concluding the ubiquitous learning activity. The second test was given to the ...

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