This chapter will provide an overview of the literature on depression and anxiety during
pregnancy, including prevalence of symptoms and syndromes, studies on the impact of
depression, anxiety, and stress on birth outcomes and child development, the mechanisms
by which these effects may operate, approaches to treatment of anxiety and depression
during pregnancy, and the evidence available on the efficacy of these treatments.
Implications for health and public policy, clinical treatment, and research will be discussed....
The discovery of efficacious new human therapeutic agents is one of humanity’s most vital
tasks. It is an enormously demanding activity that requires creativity, a vast range of scientific
knowledge, and great persistence. It is also an exceedingly expensive activity. In an
ideal world, no education would be complete without some exposure to the ways in which
new medicines are discovered and developed. For those young people interested in science
or medicine, such knowledge is arguably mandatory....
This new book discusses academic writing as a complex task which involves a variety of cognitive and metacognitive activities; a model for teaching writing strategies and the sociocultural processes of written communication; rubric-referenced self-assessment and the quality of elementary and middle-school students' writing and self-efficacy and others.
Acute haematogenous osteomyelitis refers to infection of bone resulting from bacteria in the
bloodstream. This is seen most often in children, with initial infection thought to occur in the
richly vascularised metaphyseal region (Gutierrez, 2005). Children are thought to experience
frequent episodes of bacteraemia, often with no apparent symptoms, leading to seeding and
development of osteomyelitis (Conrad, 2010). The pathogenesis of this process has been
Key elements of successful programmes
Key elements of successful WHP programmes include: establishing
clear goals and objectives, linking programmes to business objectives;
strong management support; effective communication with, and
involvement of, employees at all levels of development and
implementation of the WHP programme; creating supportive
environments; adapting the programme to social norms and building
social support; considering incentives to foster adherence to the
programmes and improving self-efficacy of the participants. ...
Social funds do not operate in a vacuum. The broad trends and changes
occurring in the countries in which social funds operate form a back-
drop for the subsequent discussions and debate to take place during the
next three days of this meeting.
Experiences with social funds show a great deal of heterogeneity. A va-
riety of players are involved in social funds. The content of social funds
programs themselves vary greatly, and views about their efficacy di-
The evidence base described here had significant limitations. Most notably, only two
randomized trials addressed hydroxyurea efficacy and safety in patients with sickle cell disease.
While the trial enrolling adults was a high-quality trial, it was not long, with only 2 years
elapsing since randomization. Two years may be adequate for assessing short-term efficacy, but
we had no trial data that made it possible to comment on the long-term efficacy of the drug.
The Committee to Review Assembled Chemical
Weapons Alternatives Program Detonation Technologies
was appointed by the National Research Council
(NRC) in response to a request by the U.S. Army’s
Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons
Three types of detonation technologies available
from technology vendors and the Army’s explosive
destruction system (EDS), collectively known as
explosive destruction technologies (EDTs), are being
considered for use at the Blue Grass Army Depot in
Richmond, Kentucky, and the Pueblo Chemical Depot
in Pueblo, Colorado....
Counseling can be delivered in a variety of forms that share the definition presented above. Forms
of counseling differ with respect to participants, delivery location, communication medium, and
interaction process. Counseling participants can be individuals, couples, or groups. The
location for counseling delivery can be face-to-face or at a distance with the assistance of
technology. The communication medium for counseling can be what is read from text, what is
heard from audio, or what is seen and heard in person or from video.
Since biomarkers of safety and efficacy are becoming tools in drug development, it is
necessary to determine whether these biomarkers can qualify for applications in clinical
trials. Qualification is defined as “a conclusion that the biomarker data submitted support
use of the biomarker in drug discovery, drug development or post approval studies and
where appropriate, in regulatory decision making” (ICH E-16). A definition of validation
was proposed during the workshop.
This chapter describes the background to why it became necessary to regulate the use and supply of drugs, and the ways in which these processes are managed. • Basis for regulation: safety, efficacy, quality, supply • Present medicines regulatory system • Present day requirements • Counterfeit drugs • Appendix: the thalidomide disaster
change the safety information e.g. add new warnings, or contraindications. The quality aspects may also need to be revised as manufacturing practices change. MAH's have strong profit motives for making claims about their drugs.
Developing a new functional food is an expensive
process. Food companies have traditionally funded research
for new food product formulations but for functional foods,
the stakes are higher—for both food companies and con-
sumers. Government investment in basic and applied
research will promote the development of functional foods,
but additional incentives are needed to reward private
companies that pioneer new health claims.
We have recently completed a thorough review of the published literature of RCT evidence
for BMJ Clinical Evidence (Barry et al 2012). In preparing this review for Clinical Evidence of
the clinical trial literature for interventions for schizophrenia, a comprehensive search
strategy identified all relevant publications, and those studies meeting reasonable quality
standards were then included as described. Despite such a careful triage process, that aimed
to include only good quality RCTs, it is clear that many studies we included have serious
The concept of tissue engineering is to
regenerate target tissue by mimicking the developmental or regenerative process of that
tissue. Thus, it can be considered an ideal therapeutic option for treating various tissue
defects. Tissue engineering of skin, cartilage, and bone has already been shown both feasible
and effective in several clinical studies, and its efficacy has attracted significant attention
from both patients and doctors.
Human growth is a measure of the physiological processes associated with birth weight,
genetics, and environment. Poor environmental factors, including inadequate health care and
nutrition can prevent the attainment of one’s full growth potential (Martorell, 1999; Pelletier,
1994; Monckeberg 1992). Health care providers that practice high quality prenatal and child
healthcare can directly influence the efficacy of the production of child health inasmuch as their
practices have an empirical basis.
As a first step, simple but vital process changes
that impact customers by bringing in more
simplicity and convenience, with greater
efficiency and efficacy for transactions, can be
undertaken. These will serve as a precursor to
the positive changes to come and help
customers view the bank’ s transformation
journey in a positive light.
With customers using multiple channels to
interact with their banks, it is critical that they
are minimally disturbed and are impacted by no
loss of existed functionality.
Chapter 5 - Key individual differencesand the road to success. After reading the material in this chapter, you should be able to: Identify at least five of Gardner’s eight multiple intelligences, and explain “practical intelligence”; identify and describe the Big Five personality dimensions, specify which one is correlated most strongly with job performance, and describe the proactive personality; explain the four components of Core Self- Evaluations;...