Processor design

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  • Soft processors often use data caches to reduce the gap between processor and main memory speeds. To achieve high efficiency, simple, blocking caches are used. Such caches are not appropriate for processor designs such as runahead and out-of-order execution that require non-blocking caches to tolerate main memory latencies. Conventional nonblocking caches are expensive and slow on FPGAs as they use content-addressable memories (CAMs). This work exploits key properties of runahead execution and demonstrates an FPGA-friendly non-blocking cache design that does not require CAMs.

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  • Computer Architecture: Chapter 4.2 - Pipelined Processor Design presents about Pipelining versus Serial Execution, Pipelined Datapath and Control, Pipeline Hazards, Data Hazards and Forwarding, Load Delay, Hazard Detection, and Stall, Control Hazards, Delayed Branch and Dynamic Branch Prediction.

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  • There are numerous options for designers in selecting a hardware platform for custom electronics design, ranging from embedded processors, Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), Programmable Micro-processors (PICs), FPGAs to Programmable Logic Devices (PLDs). The decision to choose a specific technology such as an FPGA should depend primarily on the design requirements rather than a personal preference for one technique over another.

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  • Many recent texts place instructors in the difficult position of chosing between authoritative, state-of-the art coverage and an approach that is highly supportive of student learning. This carefully developed text was widely praised by reviewers for both its great clarity and its rigor. The book balances theory and practice in depth without getting bogged down in excessive technical or mathematical language and has abundant coverage of current topics of interest, such as programmable devices, computer-aided design, and testability.

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  • For example, a few years ago, I was the Development Tools Marketing Manager for a semiconductor manufacturer. I was speaking with the Software Development Tools Manager at our major account. My job was to help convince the customer that they should be using our RISC processor in their laser printers. Since I owned the tool chain issues, I had to address his specific issues before we could convince him that we had the appropriate support for his design team.

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  • If we look at a problem as a whole, it may seem impossible to solve because it is so complex. Examples: o writing a tax computation program o writing a word processor • Complex problems can be solved using top-down design, also known as stepwise refinement, where o We break the problem into parts o Then break the parts into parts o Soon, each of the parts will be easy to do

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  • Modern embedded systems come with contradictory design constraints. On one hand, these systems often target mass production and battery-based devices, and therefore should be cheap and power efficient. On the other hand, they still need to show high (sometimes real-time) performance, and often support multiple applications and standards which requires high programmability.

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  • Complete the conversation between a web designer and his client by choosing from the dropdown menu. Web designer (WD): So (1) I ask what kind of (2) you want? Client (C): Well, I’m a singer in a band, and I (3) an online presence to help with promotion, that kind of thing. I don’t want anything too complicated. It’d be good if it looked nice, though. Perhaps a nice (4) and some attractive (5) . WD: OK, that doesn’t sound too complicated. Will you need (6) and (7) , too? I mean, do you want people to be able to listen to...

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  • In this paper, the five-band notch filter was designed using MATLAB and implemented by the floating-point digital signal processor TMS320C6711 based on TI's DSP starter kit (DSK) board connected to the parallel port of the PC through the DB25 cable included with the DSK package. The original segment of symphony orchestra corrupted two undesired sinusoids at frequencies of 750Hz and 1750Hz is conduced to input of DSK to produce the corrupted input signal which is saved in the wave file (Corrupthandel.wav) for the digital signal processor. ...

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  • We discuss ways of allowing the users of a natural language processor to define, examine, and modify the definitions of any domain-specific words or phrases known to the system. An implementation of this work forms a critical portion of the knowledge acquisition component of our Transportable English-Language Interface (TELl), which answers English questions about tabular (first normal-form) data files and runs on a Symbolics Lisp Machine.

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  • The .NET platform is the foundation upon which the next generation of software will be built. Microsoft has invested a lot of capital in its development, and is putting its considerable weight behind its adoption as a new standard. A long list of Microsoft partners have also announced support for .NET tools and components— you can check http://msdn.microsoft.com/vstudio/partners for a current list of vendors who have .NET offerings. The .NET platform is much more than a new language, software development kit (SDK), or even an operating system.

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  • Microcontroller is a computer that is integrated on a chip, it is often used to control electronic devices. Microcontroller, in essence, is a system including a processor with enough performance and low cost (other than multi-purpose microprocessors used in computers) combined with peripheral blocks as the remember, the modular input / output, the module to change the analog and analog to digital, ... In the computer modules are usually built by the chips and circuits.

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  • Power electronics is the technology of processing and controlling the flow of electric energy by supplying voltages and currents in a form that is optimally suited to the end-user’s requirements [1].Atypical block diagram is given in Figure 1.1 [2]. The input power can be either AC and DC sources. A general example is one in which the AC input power is from the electric utility. The output power to the load can be either AC and DC voltages. The power processor in the block diagram is usually called a converter. Conversion technologies are used to construct converters.

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  • In the simplest sense, a database is a collection of records and files that are organized for a particular purpose. On your computer system, you might keep the names and addresses of all your friends or customers. Perhaps you collect all the letters you write and organize them by recipient. You might have another set of files in which you keep all your financial dataaccounts payable and accounts receivable or your checkbook entries and balances. The word processor documents that you organize by topic are, in the broadest sense, one type of database.

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  • This tutorial presents an introduction to Altera’s SOPC Builder software, which is used to implement a system that uses the Nios II processor on an Altera FPGA device. The system development flow is illustrated by giving step-by-step instructions for using the SOPC Builder in conjuction with the Quartus R II software to implement a simple system. The last step in the development process involves configuring the designed circuit in an actual FPGA device, and running an application program.

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  • This book is targeted for use in an introductory lower-division assembly languageprogramming or computer organization course. After students are introduced to the MIPSarchitecture using this book, they will be well prepared to go on to an upper-division computer organization course using a textbook such as “Computer Organization and Design” by Patterson and Hennessy. This book provides a technique that will make MIPS assembly language programming a relatively easy task as compared to writing complex.Intel 80x86 assembly language code.

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  • Modern electronic systems are increasingly digital: digital microprocessors, digital logic, digital interfaces. Digital logic is easier to design and understand, and it is much more flexible than the equivalent analog circuitry would be. As an example, imagine trying to implement any kind of sophisticated micro- processor with analog parts. Digital electronics lets the PC on your desk execute different programs at different times, perform complex calculations, and communicate via the World Wide Web....

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  • Interested in developing embedded systems? Since they don't tolerate inefficiency, these systems require a disciplined approach to programming. This easy-to-read guide helps you cultivate a host of good development practices, based on classic software design patterns and new patterns unique to embedded programming. Learn how to build system architecture for processors, not operating systems, and discover specific techniques for dealing with hardware difficulties and manufacturing requirements.

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  • Digital Sound Recorder: A case study on designing embedded systems using the UML notation. Ivan Porres Paltor Åbo Akademi University, Department of Computer Science, Lemminkäisenkatu 14, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland email: Ivan.Porres@abo.fi Johan Lilius Åbo Akademi University, Department of Computer Science, Lemminkäisenkatu 14, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland email: Johan.Lilius@abo.

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  • Rapidly changing field: –vacuum tube - transistor - IC - VLSI (see section 1.4) –doubling every 1.5 years: memory capacity processor speed (Due to advances in technology and organization) •Things you‘ll be learning: –how computers work, a basic foundation –how to analyze their performance (or how not to!) –issues affecting modern processors (caches, pipelines) •Why learn this stuff? –you want to call yourself a ―computer scientist‖ –you want to build software people use (need performance) –you need to make a purchasing decision or offer ―expert‖ advice...

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