World cocoa price has fallen by some 48% over the past three years, with direct impacts on the incomes, health and nutrition of cocoa producers and their family in the two major producing countries: Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana, with some 41% and 22% of world output, respectively. The impact of the price drop has been far different in the two countries because of the greater age of plantations, market liberalisation, presence of free agents in the marketing channel, and much greater socio-political instability in one country: Côte d’Ivoire.
Butler attributed the primary cost differences between organic and conventional operations to
reduced milk production, slightly higher feed and labor costs, and significantly higher herd
replacement and transition costs. Herd replacement costs were significantly higher for organic
producers because replacement heifers must be raised organically, or must be purchased from
organic heifer breeders.
Record-high world oil prices have prompted renewed interest in producing liquid fuels from coal. The United States leads the world in recoverable coal reserves. Moreover, the technology for converting coal to liquid fuels already exists, and production costs appear competitive at world oil prices well below current levels. Yet, despite
After completing this chapter, students will be able to: Learn how the consumer price index (CPI) is constructed, consider why the CPI is an imperfect measure of the cost of living, compare the CPI and the GDP deflator as measures of the overall price level, see how to use a price index to compare dollar figures from different times, learn the distinction between real and nominal interest rates.
The WHO/HAI methodology for measuring medicine prices relies on data that are collected
through visits to medicines outlets in the public sector, the private sector and any other
sectors that serve as important medicine dispensing points (e.g. NGOs, mission hospitals). For
each medicine included in the survey (a standard “basket” of 50 medicines is recommended),
information on the final price of both the originator brand and the lowest-priced generic
equivalent found at each medicine outlet is sought.
Chapter 3 - The concept of elasticity and consumer and producer surplus. The following will be discussed in this chapter: Elasticity of demand, alternative ways of understanding elasticity, more on elasticity, consumer and producer surplus.
The annual labour of every nation is the fund which
originally supplies it with all the necessaries and
conveniences of life which it annually consumes, and
which consist always either in the immediate produce of that
labour, or in what is purchased with that produce from other
According therefore as this produce, or what is purchased with
it, bears a greater or smaller proportion to the number of those
who are to consume it, the nation will be better or worse supplied
with all the necessaries and conveniences for which it has
In today’s global marketplace, competitive pressure and industry practice
mandate that products and services be sold on a credit vs. cash-ondelivery
basis. This practice often produces a receivables asset that is
one of the largest tangible assets on a company’s balance sheet. A review
of the 2004 Fortune 500 certainly reveals this truth.
During the past 25 years of digital information development, industry-wide discussion has progressed from resolving technology issues for managing GI to establishing policy for accessing it, especially in the public sector. Geographic Information: Value, Pricing, Production and Consumption brings the producer and consumer arguments together, providing a fresh perspective on the emotional and territorial issues of IPR (intellectual property rights) protection and liberation.
ESSAYS ON PRICING FIXED INCOME DERIVATIVES AND RISK MANAGEMENT Moreover, voucher programs that encourage the entry of new competitors may produce
more options for parents than even the most decentralized of district governance structures,
reducing the potential for coordination failures and increasing the probability that even
parents who value the peer group highly will choose effective schools.
Each Federal Reserve Bank gathers anecdotal information on current economic conditions in its District through reports from Bank and Branch directors and interviews with key businessmen, economists, market experts, and other sources. The Beige Book summarizes this information by District and sector.
We have learned to what it takes to get ready for export, how to identify and find market
outlets for products, and tips for going after the target markets.
To sum up, we have provided an example of how one Wildlife Friendly product,
specialty yarn, used the steps in this guide to identify and prioritize market outlets for
We encourage you to use these same steps for your own products and start talking to
potential buyers. Remember, offer a high quality product, tell the buyer about the
wonderful natural beauty and endangered wildlife being protected...
From the lowest-budget, most formally audacious or politically radical
to the quirky, the offbeat, the cultish and the more conventional, the
independent sector has thrived in American cinema in the past two
decades, producing a body of work that stands out from the dominant
Hollywood mainstream and that includes many of the most distinctive
ﬁlms to have appeared in the USA in recent years. It represents a
challenge to Hollywood, although also one that has been embraced
by the commercial mainstream to a substantial extent.
Balanced and coordinated advances within these research areas will pave
the way to meeting the 2020 vision target of a fivefold increase in renewable
resource use. Figures 11A to 11D detail goals for these priority research areas.
Cost of materials surfaced many times as a major issue during the steering
group’s investigations. Lowering unit costs is critical for sustainable economic
Our sample contains a total of 1301 open-end, no-load U.S. domestic equity mutual
funds, which include actively managed funds, index funds, sector funds, and ETFs
(exchange traded funds). Monthly net returns, as well as annual turnover and expense
ratios for the funds, are obtained from the Center for Research in Security Prices (CRSP)
mutual fund database over the sample period January 1975–December 2002. Additional
data on fund investment objectives are obtained from the Thomson/CDA Spectrum ﬁles.
Federal crop insurance policies are generally either yield-based or revenue-based. For most yield-
based policies, a producer can receive an indemnity if there is a yield loss relative to the farmer’s
“normal” (historical) yield. Revenue-based policies were developed after yield-based policies, in
the mid-1990s, to protect against crop revenue loss resulting from declines in yield, price, or both.
The most recent addition has been products that protect against losses in whole farm revenue
rather than just for an individual crop.
Kanchha’s father immediately found a job in a brick kiln factory not very far from the
city. These kilns produce highly concentrated amounts of fine particulate matter,
which interact with other industrial and vehicle fumes over Kathmandu. Brick
kilns use coal as their main fuel source, and this contributes to the air pollution in
Kathmandu by pumping considerable quantities of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and other
toxic substances into the atmosphere. After a few months, Kanchha’s father started
The market prices of project inputs or outputs will NOT
- the inputs or outputs are TRADED ie. price is
determined in world markets)
- the project is SMALL relative to the size of the
economy in which is undertaken
Will your project lead to materials production or a
publication? If so, you need to get an estimate from the
printers or the organisation producing the materials.
Don’t forget the costs of distributing the materials if
this is part of your aims. CD-ROMs are often
cheaper than print nowadays. Do you have access to the computers and other hardware
you need for the project? Some publicly funded project
sources will contribute to buying what you need.