Sooner or later it happens to even the
most conscientious employers. No matter
how carefully they hire workers,
how many incentives they give for strong
performance, or how diligently
they try to
a positive and productive work environment,
all businesses—large and small—
may one day have to deal with a problem
Following World War II, the high quality, technologically advanced products of the United States dominated world markets. With the oil shock of the 1970s, however, many of the economic advantages associated with cheap petroleum were lost and the recovered economies of Europe and Asia emerged as strong competitors in many product areas. The innovative technologies of the US could no longer insulate industries from the customer oriented approaches of European and Asian producers.
Problem statement: Dilute sulphuric acid and enzymatic hydrolysis methods were used for sugar extraction. Xylose and glucose sugars were obtained from corn cobs. Approach: Acid hydrolysis of corn cobs gave higher amount of sugars than enzymatic hydrolysis. Results: The results showed that optimal temperature and time for sugar fermentation were approximately 25°C and 50 h by two yeast strains (S. cerevisiae and P. Stipitis) respectively.
The two most important environmental hazards faced by humankind today are air pollution and global warming. Both have a direct link with our current overdependence on fossil fuels. Pollutants produced from combustion of hydrocarbons now cause even more health problems due to the urbanization of world population
Generally speaking, scheduling is the procedure of mapping a set of tasks or jobs
(studied objects) to a set of target resources efficiently. It is an important tool in
manufacturing and engineering, where it can have a major impact on the productivity
of a process. More specifically, as a part of a larger planning and scheduling process,
production scheduling is essential for the proper functioning of a manufacturing
enterprise. Its primary goal is to maximize throughput and optimize resource
utilization, while at the same time minimizing operating costs.
From time to time we all encounter problems in the manufacture of baked
products. Sometimes they are seen as defects in the baked product which arise for
no obvious reasons. On other occasions we simply need to understand what are the
most important criteria to consider if we have to or want to change ingredients or
Solving baking problems has always been the province of the bakery ‘experts’,
those mysterious persons who always seems to know how to restore the loss of
quality, or what recipe and process changes to introduce to achieve a given quality.
First and foremost, we would like to express many thanks to our editor
on the first edition of the book—and boss—Janet Portman. Not only is her
skill with a red pen unparalleled, but she is also a humane taskmaster. if
all supervisors were as good-humored, respectful, and kind, employment
lawyers throughout the country would have to find new work. And many
thanks to our meticulous and detail-oriented editor on later editions,
our friend and colleague Stephanie bornstein. thanks for catching our
mistakes and making us look good....
The market for organic food has increased considerably over the last decade due to consumer’s
increasing awareness of both health and environmental issues (Soler et al., 2008). This growth
in demand is expected to continue in the coming years, even though the situation differs from
one country to another in term of type and quantities of production (Vindigni et al., 2002).
The future of organic will, to a large extent, depend on consumer demand.
The basic theme of this paper is the fact that if A is a ﬁnite set of integers, then the sum and product sets cannot both be small. A precise formulation of this fact is Conjecture 1 below due to Erd˝s-Szemer´di [E-S]. (see also [El], [T], o e and [K-T] for related aspects.) Only much weaker results or very special cases of this conjecture are presently known. One approach consists of assuming the sum set A + A small and then deriving that the product set AA is large (using Freiman’s structure theorem) (cf. [N-T], [Na3]). We follow the...
In 1970 Alexander Grothendieck  posed the following problem: let Γ1 and Γ2 be ﬁnitely presented, residually ﬁnite groups, and let u : Γ1 → Γ2 be a ˆ homomorphism such that the induced map of proﬁnite completions u : Γ1 → Γ2 ˆ ˆ is an isomorphism; does it follow that u is an isomorphism? In this paper we settle this problem by exhibiting pairs of groups u : P → Γ such that Γ is a direct product of two residually ﬁnite, hyperbolic groups, P is a ﬁnitely presented subgroup of inﬁnite index, P is not...
In Pakistan, a two-tiered action plan is required: to develop systems, which provide profitability
for the smallholder and maintain quality through the supply chain, while assisting the
development of larger scale commercial farms. We believe the co-existence of both kinds of farms is
the reality of dairying in Pakistan and development efforts must provide solutions for both smallholders
and commercial farmers. The Chinese model of farm development may provide a good example.
Milk production in China is very diverse.
Whether your screener scalps, removes fines, or
grades material, the machine’s failure can have
costly consequences. A torn or otherwise compromised
screen can force you to reprocess material,
scrap it, or even recall off-spec product. This article
will present some of the common causes of such
screen problems and possible solutions
Developing countries devote all their available capacities to safeguard their small and
poor farmers from being sidelined by things like growing competition through
efficient support measures. They use their flexibilities to provide production-linked
support to the fullest extent as, on the one hand, such payments are easier to
administer and as they help creating basic food security by increasing production of
staple crops. Support to rural development in general and to the environment would
Identifying domain-dependent opinion words is a key problem in opinion mining and has been studied by several researchers. However, existing work has been focused on adjectives and to some extent verbs. Limited work has been done on nouns and noun phrases. In our work, we used the feature-based opinion mining model, and we found that in some domains nouns and noun phrases that indicate product features may also imply opinions.
In this appendix, we are concerned with the more common situation in which a business is faced with the problem of setting its own prices. Clearly, the pricing decision can be critical. If the price is set too high, customers won’t buy the company’s products. If the price is set too low, the company’s costs won’t be covered.
In a text-produqtion system high and special demands are placed on the grammar and the lexicon. This paper will view these comDonents in such a system (overview in section 1). First, the subcomponente dealing with semantic information and with syntactic information will be presented se!:arataly (section 2). The probtems of relating these two types of information are then identified (section 3). Finally, strategies designed to meet the problems are proDose¢l and discussed (section 4).
This paper pinpoints some of the problems faced when a computer text production model (COMMENTATOR) is to produce spontaneous speech, in speech. This paper discusses some of the problems in the light of the computer model of verbal production presented £n Sigurd (1982), Fornell (1983). For experimental purposes a simple speech synthesis device (VOTRAX) has been used. The Problem of producing naturally sounding utterances is also met in text-to-speech systems (see e.g. Carlson & Granstr~m, 1978). ...
Indoor air quality problems resulting from the emission of volatile organic compounds have become an issue of increasing concern. Emissions from building and furnishing materials, which are frequently constructed from particleboard and medium density fiberboard, are a potentially important contributor of indoor VOCs. In this research, VOC emissions from particleboard and MDF were measured in small stainless steel chambers for 4 days. Samples were collected from 53 of the 61 U.S. mills that produce particleboard and MDF.
During the past several decades, air quality in homes and office buildings has become a matter of increasing concern. Indoor air concentrations of volatile organic compounds are often significantly higher than outside due to VOC emissions from building materials, furnishings, and occupant’s activities. This problem was exacerbated following the energy crisis in the 1970s as homeowners and builders improved the energy efficiency of their buildings by decreasing air exchange rates.