Background Definitions Causation: degrees of certainty Pharmacovigilance and pharmacoepidemiology Classification Causes Allergy in response to drugs Effects of prolonged administration: chronic organ toxicity Adverse effects on reproduction
Cur'd yesterday of my disease I died last night of my physician.1 Nature is neutral, i.e. it has no 'intentions' towards humans, though it is often unfavourable to them.
During dry seasons when the surface water disappears and the vegetation dries up, camels
have to be watered from subterranean sources such as man made water holes, old wells
etc. In highly arid areas as in Eastern Africa, watering camels in dry season is a very time
consuming and arduous job since water has to be lifted bucket by bucket from several
metres deep wells.
This volume broadens the scope of Trauma and Disaster: The Structure of Human
Chaos to include an expanded focus on a special type of disaster, terrorism. Terrorism
seeks to achieve political, ideological, or theological goals through a threat or
action that creates extreme fear or horror.Many believe that terrorism (and torture)
produce the highest rates of psychiatric sequelae amongst all types of disasters.
Renal Disease Renal excretion of parent drug and metabolites is generally accomplished by glomerular filtration and by specific drug transporters, only now being identified. If a drug or its metabolites are primarily excreted through the kidneys and increased drug levels are associated with adverse effects, drug dosages must be reduced in patients with renal dysfunction to avoid toxicity. The antiarrhythmics dofetilide and sotalol undergo predominant renal excretion and carry a risk of QT prolongation and arrhythmias if doses are not reduced in renal disease.
Endogenous and exogenous opiates are currently considered the drugs of
choice for treating different kinds of pain. However, their prolonged use
produces several adverse symptoms, and in addition, many forms of pain
are resistant to any kind of therapy.