ing departments, these companies stretch their limited resources, live close to their customers,
and create more satisfying solutions to customers’ needs. They form buyers
clubs, use creative public relations, and focus on delivering quality products to win
long-term customer loyalty. It seems that not all marketing must follow the P&G model.
In fact, we can distinguish three stages through which marketing practice might
Business process management (BPM) is a holistic management approach focused on aligning all aspects of an organization with the wants and needs of clients. It promotes business effectiveness and efficiency while striving for innovation, flexibility, and integration with technology. BPM attempts to improve processes continuously. It can therefore be described as a "process optimization process." It is argued that BPM enables organizations to be more efficient, more effective and more capable of change than a functionally focused, traditional hierarchical management approach....
In the past decade manufacturers and retailers have
been gradually switching from above the line mass
media advertising to a variety of below the line sales
promotions. Although sales promotions take up a
very large share of total marketing expenditure, they
remain an area of less strategic consideration or
attention than any other aspect of the promotion mix
(Srinivasan and Anderson, 1998). The potential
benefits of using sales promotions could range from
giving immediacy and encouraging purchase of a
product or service by changing the perceived value-
Organic milk production systems rely on ecologically based practices that virtually prohibit the
use of antibiotics and hormones in the cow herd and the use of synthetic chemicals in the
production of cattle feed. Organic milk production systems also attempt to accommodate the
animals’ natural nutritional and behavioral requirements, for example ensuring that dairy cows
have access to pasture (Greene and Kremen).
When toymaker Mattel launched an e-commerce website in 2009 (shop.mattel.com), it used a heavy
dose of video to increase consumer engagement and distinguish its offerings from those found on
traditional retail sites. The company, in effect, turned video into a direct sales tool: in the ﬁ rst year, as
many as 42% of the top-selling products on the Mattel site appeared after a visitor clicked on a video.
Mattel cross-promotes the store and speciﬁ c products heavily through its Facebook page and Twitter
Based on the fundamental research work of Fritz Haber, Carl Bosch and his engineering team developed the ammonia synthesis to technical operability using the promoted iron-based catalyst found by Alwin Mittasch and co-workers.
The dramatic rise in oil prices in 2008 increased attention on the sources of imported oil, the workings of the world oil market, and the potential problems of meeting future demand for liquid fuels. Energy security concerns typically focus on the Middle East, mainly because that is where surplus oil production capacity is concentrated. But a large amount of the world’s oil and natural gas production occurs in countries outside o
In this chapter, you will learn how globalization affects international marketing activities. You will also: Explore how firms develop their international product strategies. understand how companies blend product and promotional strategies for international markets, and examine the elements that influence international distribution and pricing strategies.
Health is everybody’s business. We have a population that is living
longer and is likely to carry a burden of chronic disease. An increasing
number of products, treatments and information are available to an
informed health consumer and ‘health’ is discussed by those as diverse
as Kylie Minogue in relation to breast cancer, Jamie Oliver in relation
to healthy food for children and Bill Gates in relation to human immunodefi
ciency virus/acquired immune defi ciency syndrome (HIV/
In biotechnology, the use of Escherichia colifor recombinant protein pro-duction has a long tradition, although the optimal production conditions
for certain proteins are still not evident. The most favorable conditions for
protein production vary with the gene product.
To deal with the myriad of problems, some of the Plan
(i) promoting production of superior breed bulls at
subsidized private farms from where the government would procure these
animals at controlled prices for distribution to villages, (ii) emphasis on
preventing disease among animals through vaccination and inoculation, with
legislation for compulsory mass inoculation to be put in place if there was a
‘lack of willing cooperation’ from farmers, (iii) removal of livestock from
within cities to outskirts, particularly removing gujar colonies from...
Potassium permanganate absorbed on copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate oxidizes aniline into azobenzene under heterogenous conditions. Azoxybenzene is a minor by-product. Under solventless reaction conditions, the oxidation does not take place owing to predominant complex formation between copper(II) and aniline. The influence of the nature of the solvent as well as the replacement of copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate by several other inorganic salt hydrates on the potassium permanganate promoted oxidation of aniline is described.
During Vietnam’s command economy, state companie s played an important role in trading industrial commodities and agricultural products. Recent transformation toward a market-oriented economy with government intervention has stressed the emergence of new actors, particularly private traders who promote the development of the trading system, market competition and enhanced agricultural production.
This paper highlights the issues occurring in the promotion of Cinnamon tree product marketing in Palpa district of Nepal. Cinnamon production and collection systems are reviewed. Case studies indicate how poor people maintain their livelihood by marketing cinnamon bark and leaf in the study area.
So much has changed in advertising in the past five years since the second edition
of this book, that almost every chapter needed—and received—major revisions
and updating. Not only have advertisers changed what they do, but even when
they do the same thing, often it’s called something else. Even more important
there are now new chapters on subjects not covered before: branding and Yellow
Pages advertising plus a totally new approach to basic Internet advertising.
Brand identityis a combination of factors: Name, logo, symbols, design, packaging, product or service performance, and image or associations in the consumer’s mind. equity.IMCplays a major role in the process of developing and sustaining brand identity and equity.
According to the objective idealist philosophy, thinking is a product of "absolute idea" as a supernatural instinct, independent, not dependent on the material. According to George Wilhemer Fridrick Heghen: "The concept of absolute origins and its activities can only be expressed in thought, in the form of speculative science alone". . Karl Marx said: "For Heghen, the movement of thinking he personified under the name" the idea "that God created reality; reality is only appearance of ideas"