The Charity Commission is the independent regulator of charities in England and Wales. Its aim is to provide the best
possible regulation of charities in England and Wales in order to increase charities’ effectiveness and public confidence
and trust. Most charities must register with the Commission, although some special types of charity do not have to
register. There are some 180,000 registered charities in England and Wales. In Scotland the framework is different,
and the Commission does not regulate Scottish charities.
Unbundling the deposit component of an insurance contract leads to the separate
recognition and measurement of the financial asset or financial liability arising under
the deposit component, and the insurance component of the contract.
If the deposit unbundling rules did not apply and the accounting policies of
the insurer or reinsurer did not require all assets and liabilities under the contract
to be recognised, liabilities might be incorrectly recognised as income and assets
While the discussion of abnormal profit generation in inefficient markets can apply to any number
of asset classes that trade in private markets, most of these markets suffer from a lack of data
availability. The real estate market is an exception in this respect, and therefore provides an excellent
laboratory for constructing a systematic view of whether and how informed institutional-level
investors can generate abnormal profits through active trading in a somewhat inefficient market.
Nonetheless, data is data, and whilst the interpretation may be suspect (which can
happen with even the best controlled studies), the data is the most valuable asset in a
research paper. Of course insight that either consolidates or furthers our
understanding is vital, but without data it can be nothing more than an armchair idea.
Many journals require the highest levels of scientific rigour, which may make some
research inaccessible - really a form of scientific censorship.
The chapters in this book reflect leading edge ideas, reflections and observations. Even
though the modern era of sleep research evolved from Aserinksky’s observations of
rapid eye movements in the sleep of babies, most work is nonetheless done in adults.
There is much less formal work done in youngsters and virtually none in utero and
pregnancy itself is virtually unexplored. So, Dr Miller et al’s chapter reviewing sleep in
pregnancy is particularly welcome as it incorporates current thinking in how disordered
sleep impacts other adult pathological processes.
These guidelines have been developed to help ensure that, in all research sponsored by the
Aboriginal Women’s Health Research Program, appropriate respect is given to the cultures,
languages, knowledge and values of Aboriginal peoples’ legitimate knowledge.
These guidelines represent the standard of best practice adopted by the Saskatoon Aboriginal
Women’s Health Research Advisory Committee.
MASSEY IS YOUR GATEWAY TO A FUTURE
At Massey University we’re in the business of shaping
future leaders and transforming the way the business
world works. We offer our students the opportunity to
develop the knowledge and skills they’ll need to excel in
any area of business.
Massey’s College of Business strives to create a
stimulating learning and research environment to enrich
our students, our partners in the community, and our
The first report of a quantitative risk evaluation applied to health goes back to Laplace, in the
late eighteenth century, which calculated the probability of death among people with and
without vaccination for smallpox. With Pasteur's studies in the late nineteenth century, it was
possible to use the tools of statistics to evaluate the factors related to communicable diseases,
giving birth to the concept of epidemiological risk (Covello; Munpower, 1985, Czeresnia, 2004).
Ownership rates across all age groups increased between 1985 and 2003. Again, this is a well-
documented and understood change that has been driven by a number of economic factors,
including, but not limited to, falling interest rates, rising standards of living, public policies
helping low- and middle-income families afford home ownership.
Among the elderly population, the ownership rate for population 85 and over exhibited the
highest increase – i.e., 16 percentage points. Data show that the ownership rate peaks at the
age 62 to 74.
The advent of modernity has produced and incorporated to the human way of life a variety
of technologies and the risk became the distinguishing feature of this generated complexity.
More and more, the sources of hazards1 were associated with daily social practices. In
today's society, it is difficult to separate the manmade dangers of the "natural" dangers
(Beck, 2003). A flood for example, that occurred as a completely spontaneous phenomenon,
today can happen as a consequence of human action on nature.
Ideally a screening test should detect all clinically significant prostate cancers and not
benign pathologies. It has been normal practice that men who are found to have an
abnormal serum PSA level should have a prostate biopsy. For example, the UK Prostate
Cancer Risk Management Programme (PCRMP) states “if your PSA is definitely raised, a
prostate biopsy is required to determine whether cancer is present” The justification for
performing biopsy in men with an abnormal PSA is that they are at high risk of prostate
Selection of chemical markers is crucial for the quality control of herbal medicines, including
authentication of genuine species, harvesting the best quality raw materials, evaluation of post-
harvesting handling, assessment of intermediates and finished products, and detection of harmful
or toxic ingredients. Ideal chemical markers should be the therapeutic components of herbal
medicines. However, for most herbal medicines, the therapeutic components have not been fully
elucidated or easily monitored.
If you are getting benefits as a wife or husband based on
your spouse’s work, when you report the death to us, we
will change your payments to survivors benefits. If we need
more information, we will contact you.
If you are getting benefits based on your own work, call
or visit us, and we will check to see if you can get more
money as a widow or widower. If so, you will receive a
combination of benefits that equals the higher amount.
You will need to complete an application to switch to
survivors benefits, and we will need to...
One factor that discourages the use of new organizational techniques is the dependence of email clients,
legacy file systems, and other applications on their own independent hierarchical structures. We agree with
Boardman [Boardman02] that folder structures should be integrated – in our case, also integrated with our
more flexible collection structure.
Reporting tools with appropriate visualization are another class of very useful apps. A simple query based
tool can be remarkably insightful and useful from “how I spend my time” to “count and space used” by
As shown in Table 2, the area of agricultural land worldwide is larger than that
of forests (FAOSTAT Resources 2009). Furthermore, non-wood fibres usually
have high annual biomass yields per hectare which are equal or superior to that
of woods (Pierce 1991). Approximately 30% of the forest area is used primarily
for the production of wood. An additional 24% of the forest area is designated
for multiple uses, which also includes the production of wood in most cases
Serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) is the only biomarker routinely used for the early
detection of prostate cancer, but it is not a perfect test. Although PSA is highly specific for
prostate, an elevated level is not specific for cancer, being increased in benign hyperplasia
and prostatitis (Pungalia, 2006; Bozeman, 2002). Consequently, the majority of men with
an increased serum PSA do not have prostate cancer and thus undergo unnecessary
Aboriginal peoples have distinctive perspectives and understandings, deriving from their
cultures and histories and embodied in Aboriginal languages. Research that has Aboriginal
experience as its subject matter must reflect these perspectives and understandings.
In the past, research concerning Aboriginal peoples has usually been initiated outside the
Aboriginal community and carried out by non Aboriginal people. Aboriginal people have had
almost no opportunity to correct misinformation or to challenge ethnocentric and racist
In addition to ovulation, another critical function occurs during the
menstrual cycle. The woman’s body must be prepared in case fertilization
occurs. Everything must be ready to nurture the developing embryo. Dur-
ing the ﬁrst two weeks of the cycle, estrogen causes the lining of the uterus
to thicken. There is also an increase in the amount of blood that ﬂows to
During the second half of the cycle, after ovulation has occurred, the
follicle (now without the egg cell) develops into a yellow-colored body,
the corpus luteum.
Small and micro enterprises are the outlets upon which the government and many development
organizations rely to curb poverty and unemployment rates, including among the youth
population. These small businesses, both formal and informal, help to absorb the local
workforce. However, most young entrepreneurs lack the required financial services necessary to
sustain themselves and grow. Currently only 4.2% of Yemen’s population has access to financial