In the past decade manufacturers and retailers have
been gradually switching from above the line mass
media advertising to a variety of below the line sales
promotions. Although sales promotions take up a
very large share of total marketing expenditure, they
remain an area of less strategic consideration or
attention than any other aspect of the promotion mix
(Srinivasan and Anderson, 1998). The potential
benefits of using sales promotions could range from
giving immediacy and encouraging purchase of a
product or service by changing the perceived value-
Editing this book was a pleasant, but challenging job. I enjoyed reviewing chapters
from different domains, bringing up-to-date empirical research studies, excellent
literature reviews and controversial issues. This was an instructive experience for me
and the authors. We both learned from each other, making different backgrounds a
gain-gain situation, by evaluating each chapter critically from different perspectives.
We are sure the reader will enjoy the end result: a selection of chapters from different
Often communities have to deal with local political considerations when they plan events.
No specific advice can be given to the promoter except to warn him or her that political
considerations are always important to the local community. Often a way to encourage
elected political officials to support an event is to show the monetary or quality-of-life
impact that a successful event would have on their communities or careers. Explaining the
positive impact encourages officials to support the public safety coordinators by providing
adequate local resources and funding.
This trend reflects the ongoing disen-
chantment with mass media advertising based on the
difficulty of measuring its effectiveness. However,
the trend also reflects a desire by manufacturers and
retailers to get closer to customers in some form of
relationship marketing. A number of explanations
have been forwarded for the increasing popularity of
promotions (Dickson and Sawyer, 1990; Quelch,
1983; Low and Jakki, 2000; Dawes, 2004). One of
the key factors is the changing relationship with
Aprofession is characterized by skill based on a unique body of knowledge, a
code of ethics, and a social contract with society or government that grants it a
certain degree of autonomy in exchange for self-regulation. The responsibilities
of self-regulation in the medical profession are complex and involve many
levels of oversight aimed at guaranteeing the continuing competence of
practicing physicians. Today, professional associations in the United States play
a significant role in upholding the ethical, educational, scientific, and practice
standards of the medical profession.
Sexual harassment offline is a well-known, highly prevalent, extensively investigated, and intensively
treated social problem. An accepted model classifies sexual harassment behaviors into the categories
of gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, and sexual coercion. Theory and research show that
sexual harassment behavior occurs as a product of person × situation characteristics and has substantial
personal and organizational costs.
It is possible also that sprezzatura may be set in an organisational context. In terms of
modern imagery within organisations, there may be similarities of context between a sixteenth
century court and a twenty first century court, or organisation. In external terms, the version
today lacks the overt ostentation of the earlier one in terms of furnishings, dress and ceremonials.
Seeking Innovative Ways to Eliminate the Pay Gap. The Department of Labor, in
conjunction with the National Equal Pay Task Force, issued an “Equal Pay App Challenge.” This
challenge invites software developers to use publicly available data and resources to create
applications that accomplish at least one of the following goals: provide greater access to pay
data broken down by gender, race, and ethnicity; provide interactive tools for early career
coaching; help inform negotiations; and promote online mentoring.
To achieve these ends, Lean Manufacturing promotes a fundamental rethinking of how to produce and
deliver goods and services and meet the above production challenges. Largely, this rethinking represents
a fundamental paradigm shift from “batch and queue” mass production to production systems based on
a product aligned “single-piece flow, pull production” system.
Various health, education, and youth organisations and adolescence researchers have
defined and categorised key skills in different ways. Despite these differences, experts
and practitioners agree that the term “life skills” typically includes the skills listed in the
preceding definition. To these we have added advocacy skills, because they are important
in personal and collective efforts to make a strong case for behaviours and conditions that
are conducive to health. (For a case study on advocacy skills, see Section 2.2).
We reported earlier that ectopic expression of CAP2, a single AP2 domain
containing transcription activator from chickpea (Cicer arietinum)in
tobacco improves growth and development, and tolerance to dehydration
and salt stress, of the transgenic plants.
In coordination with the MNCH component of the GHI strategy, prevention of NTDs will also
include the promotion of WASH practices in households, the provision of safe water and
construction of sanitation facilities. Since lymphatic filariasis (LF) can be prevented through the
use of bednets, efforts in this arena can be more tightly integrated with PMI to emphasize bednet
distribution in areas with LF, even if malaria is not highly prevalent.
The discourses and institutions of human rights are contemporary devices for
bringing morality to bear on the harsh realities of political, economic and social life.
These attempts to render the conditions of human existence more tolerable and more
dignified tend to focus mainly on the role of domestic and international law and the
conduct of states and the international institutions that represent them.
Social inclusion and social support are recognised as
key social determinants of health17. The Heart
Foundation has found strong and consistent evidence
that people who are socially isolated or lacking quality
social support are more likely to develop coronary heart
disease, and that social support and social isolation can
affect the recovery and future health of people who
already have heart disease21. Evidence also shows a
strong link between social capital, sense of community
belonging, community participation, a culture of
cooperation and tolerance, and positive mental health2.
Once COPD has been diagnosed, goals of treatment and management include relieving
symptoms; preventing and treating disease progression, complications, and exacerbations;
improving exercise tolerance, daily activity, and health status; monitoring nutritional needs;
and reducing premature mortality (8).