MEASUREMENT AND INFERENCE
Jerry Lee Hall, Ph.D., RE. Professor of Mechanical Engineering Iowa State University Ames, Iowa
3.1 THE MEASUREMENT PROBLEM / 3.1 3.2 DEFINITION OF MEASUREMENT / 3.3 3.3 STANDARDS OF MEASUREMENT / 3.4 3.4 THE MEASURING SYSTEM / 3.5 3.5 CALIBRATION / 3.7 3.6 DESIGN OF THE MEASURING SYSTEM / 3.8 3.7 SELECTED MEASURING-SYSTEM COMPONENTS AND EXAMPLES / 3.26 3.8 SOURCES OF ERROR IN MEASUREMENTS / 3.40 3.9 ANALYSIS OF DATA / 3.43 3.10 CONFIDENCE LIMITS / 3.49 3.11 PROPAGATION OF ERROR OR UNCERTAINTY / 3.53 REFERENCES / 3.54 ADDITIONAL REFERENCES / 3.55
As a consequence of the increasing importance of tritium resulting
from nuclear fission and neutron activation, from its use in accelerators,
from its use in research and industry, and from its use in the
investigation of the environment and its distribution in the environment,
the NCRP designated a scientific committee to prepare a report
on the currently acceptable methods of measuring tritium. This
report is particularly aimed in assisting an individual to select a
procedure suitable to the problem at hand....
The second edition of Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection has several important new features. SI units are employed throughout, the older units being de-fined but used sparingly. There are two new chapters. One is on statistics for health physics. It starts with the description of radioactive decay as a Bernoulli process and treats sample counting, propagation of error, limits of detection, type-I and type-II errors, instrument response, and Monte Carlo radiation-transport computations.
Sampling and descriptive statistics, probability, propagation of error, commonly used distributions, confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, correlation and simple linear regression, multiple regression,... As the main contents of the ebook "Statistics for Engineers and Scientists". Invite you to consult.
This book is based on the contributions of several authors in electromagnetic waves
propagations. Several issues are considered. The contents of most of the chapters are
highlighting non classic presentation of wave propagation and interaction with
matters. This book bridges the gap between physics and engineering in these issues.
Each chapter keeps the author notation that the reader should be aware of as he reads
from chapter to the other. The author’s notations are kept in order to eliminate any
possible unintentional errors that might lead to confusion.
This edition of Acetaria is a faithful reprint of the First Edition of 1699, with the correction of a few obvious
typographical errors, and those noted in the Errata of the original edition. Whereas no attempt has been made
to reproduce the typography of the original, the spirit has been retained, and the vagaries of spelling and
punctuation have been carefully followed; also the old-style S [s] has been retained. Much of the flavour of
Acetaria is lost if it is scanned too hurriedly; and one should remember also that Latin and Greek were the
gauge of a man of letters, and if the titles...
Our primary objective herein is not to determine how approximate calculations introduce
errors into situations with accurate hypotheses, but instead to study how rigorous
calculations transmit errors due to inaccurate parameters or hypotheses. Unlike quantities
represented by entire numbers, the continuous quantities generated from physics,
economics or engineering sciences, as represented by one or several real numbers, are
compromised by errors.
Stream ciphers are an important class of encryption algorithms. They encrypt individual
characters (usually binary digits) of a plaintext message one at a time, using an encryption
transformation which varies with time. By contrast, block ciphers (Chapter 7) tend to
simultaneously encrypt groups of characters of a plaintext message using a fixed encryption
transformation. Stream ciphers are generally faster than block ciphers in hardware,
and have less complex hardware circuitry. They are also more appropriate, and in some
cases mandatory (e.g.
Tweets represent a critical source of fresh information, in which named entities occur frequently with rich variations. We study the problem of named entity normalization (NEN) for tweets. Two main challenges are the errors propagated from named entity recognition (NER) and the dearth of information in a single tweet.
Tree-to-string translation is syntax-aware and efﬁcient but sensitive to parsing errors. Forestto-string translation approaches mitigate the risk of propagating parser errors into translation errors by considering a forest of alternative trees, as generated by a source language parser. We propose an alternative approach to generating forests that is based on combining sub-trees within the ﬁrst best parse through binarization.
In this paper we investigate the beneﬁt of stochastic predictor components for the parsing quality which can be obtained with a rule-based dependency grammar. By including a chunker, a supertagger, a PP attacher, and a fast probabilistic parser we were able to improve upon the baseline by 3.2%, bringing the overall labelled accuracy to 91.1% on the German NEGRA corpus. We attribute the successful integration to the ability of the underlying grammar model to combine uncertain evidence in a soft manner, thus avoiding the problem of error propagation. ...
USE OF MODERN BLOCK CIPHERS
Symmetric-key encipherment can be done
using modern block ciphers. Modes of
operation have been devised to encipher text of
any size employing either DES or AES.
A single bit error in transmission can create errors in
several in the corresponding block.
USE OF MODERN BLOCK CIPHERS
Symmetric-key encipherment can be done using modern block ciphers. Modes of operation have been devised to encipher text of any size employing either DES or AES.
1 USE OF MODERN BLOCK CIPHERS
Electronic codebook (ECB) mode
Error Propagation A single bit error in transmission can create errors in several in the corresponding block. However, the error does not have any effect on the other blocks.
Motivation and Example Adaptive Filter Structure Performance and Robustness Issues Error and Energy Measures Robust Adaptive Filtering Energy Bounds and Passivity Relations Min-Max Optimality of Adaptive Gradient Algorithms Comparison of LMS and RLS Algorithms Time-Domain Feedback Analysis
Ali H. Sayed
University of California, Los Angeles
Bell Laboratories Lucent Technologies
Time-Domain Analysis • l2 −Stability and the Small Gain Condition • Energy Propagation in the Feedback Cascade • A Deterministic Convergence Analysis
20.10Filtered-Error Gradient Algorithms 20.
Practical Considerationsof Wideband AQAM
In deriving the upper bound performance of wideband AQAM portrayed in Figure 4.21(b), various assumptions were made and stated in Section 4.3.1. However, in order to provide a more accurate comparison between AQAM and constituent fixed modulation modes, those its assumptions must be justified and their effects have to be investigated. Specifically, perfect, i.e. error-free feedback was assumed for the DFE, while in practice erroneous decision can be fed back, which results in error propagation....
Script injection attacks typically affect non-malicious
users and succeed without compromising Web applica-
tion servers or networks. For example, in 2005, the self-
propagating Samy worm on MySpace used script injec-
tion to infect over a million users . As a MySpace
user viewed the MySpace page of another, infected user,
the worm script would execute and send a page update
request to the server, causing the worm script to be in-
cluded also on the viewing user’s page.
MULTISENSOR ARCHITECTURES AND ERROR PROPAGATION
The purpose of this chapter is to extend the data acquisition error analysis of the preceding chapters to provide understanding about how errors originating in multisensor architectures combine and propagate in algorithmic computations. This development is focused on the wider applications of sensor integration for improving data characterization rather than the narrower applications of sensor fusion employed for data ambiguity reduction.
Under the name of ideal circuit network, it is easy to make us understand that digital circuits are independent of the inner status and their outputs just only depend on the inputs. They are time constants and therefore Boolean algebra is a special suitable means of describing. In fact propagation delay time of circuit system should be in thought firstly in designing circuit network. In that case Boolean algebra does not seems to be fully suitable for describing actual circuit systems.
We introduce a new approach to transitionbased dependency parsing in which the parser does not directly construct a dependency structure, but rather an undirected graph, which is then converted into a directed dependency tree in a post-processing step. This alleviates error propagation, since undirected parsers do not need to observe the single-head constraint. Undirected parsers can be obtained by simplifying existing transition-based parsers satisfying certain conditions.
For Chinese POS tagging, word segmentation is a preliminary step. To avoid error propagation and improve segmentation by utilizing POS information, segmentation and tagging can be performed simultaneously. A challenge for this joint approach is the large combined search space, which makes efﬁcient decoding very hard. Recent research has explored the integration of segmentation and POS tagging, by decoding under restricted versions of the full combined search space.