Xem 1-20 trên 28 kết quả Propositional language
  • Ambiguous propositions are analyzed in a type system where disambiguation is effected during assembly (i.e. by coercion). Ambiguity is introduced through a layer of types that are underspecified relative to a pre-existing collection of dependent types, construed as unambiguous propositions. A simple system of reasoning directly with such underspecification is described, and shown to be sound and complete for the full range of disambiguations. Beyond erasing types, the system supports constraints on disambiguations, including co-variation. ...

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  • Natural Language and Databases has been a common panel topic for some years, partly because it has been an active area of work, but more importantly, because it has been widely assumed that database access is a good test environment for language research. I thought the time had come to look again at this assumption, and that it would be useful, for COLING 84, to do this. I therefore invited the members of the Panel to speak to the proposition (developed below) that database query is no longer a good, let alone the best, test environment for language processing...

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  • While I disagree with t h e proposition t h a t d a t a b a s e query has outlived its usefulness as a test e n v i r o n m e n t for n a t u r a l language processing (for reasons t h a t I give below), I believe t h e r e are o t h e r reasonable tasks which can also s p u r new research in NL processing. In particular, I will suggest t h a t the task of providing a...

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  • In this paper we argue that lexicalselection plays a more important role in the generation process than has commonly been assumed. To stress the importance of lexicalsemantic input to generation, we explore the distinction and treatment of generating open and closed cla~s lexical items, and suggest an additional classification of the latter into discourse-oriented and proposition-oriented items. Finally, we discuss how lexical selection is influenced by thematic ([oc~) information in the input. ...

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  • The topic of the paper is the introduction of a formalism that permits a homogeneous representation of definite temporal adverbials, temporal quantifications (as frequency and duration), temporal conJ~ctions and tenses, and of their combinations with propositions. This unified representation renders it possible to show how these components refer to each other and interact in c r e a t i ~ temporal meanings. The formal representation is 0ased on the notions "phase-set" and "phase-operator", and it involves an interval logic.

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  • A study on French learning, with university students as participants, by Jones and Plass (2002) supported the proposition that simultaneous visual and auditory presentations can cause the modality effect, which lowers extraneous cognitive load and enhances learning performance. Another study about English learning, also with university students as participants, by Daio et al. (2007) revealed that double modes, such as sound and complete paragraph, and ...

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  • The essays collected in this volume represent work carried out over a period of more than ten years on a variety of problems in artificial intelligence, the philosophy of mind and language, and natural-language semantics, addressed from a perspective that takes as central the use of formal logic and the explicit representation of knowledge.

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  • This book is based on my lecture notes and supervision ( tutorial) notes for the course entitled " Logic Computation and Set Theory" which is lecture in part II(third years) at the Cambridge Mathematics Tripos. The choise material is not mine, but is laid down by the Mathematics Faculty Board having regard to what student have to learned in their first two years.

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  • This book introduces you to the theory of relational databases, focusing on the application of that theory to the design of computer languages that properly embrace it. The book is intended for those studying relational databases as part of a degree course in Information Technology (IT). Relational database theory, originally proposed by Edgar F. Codd in 1969, is a topic in Computer Science. Codd’s seminal paper (1970) was entitled A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks (reference [5] in Appendix B)....

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  • Chapter I. Of The Necessity Of Commencing With An Analysis Of Language. Chapter II. Of Names. Chapter III. Of The Things Denoted By Names. Chapter IV. Of Propositions. Chapter V. Of The Import Of Propositions. Chapter VI. Of Propositions Merely Verbal. Chapter VII. Of The Nature Of Classification, And The Five Predicables. Chapter VIII. Of Definition.  Book II. On Reasoning.        Chapter I. Of Inference, Or Reasoning, In General. Chapter II. Of Ratiocination, Or Syllogism. Chapter III. Of The Functions And Logical Value Of The Syllogism. Chapter IV.

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  • The search in patent databases is a risky business compared to the search in other domains. A single document that is relevant but overlooked during a patent search can turn into an expensive proposition. While recent research engages in specialized models and algorithms to improve the effectiveness of patent retrieval, we bring another aspect into focus: the detection and exploitation of patent inconsistencies. In particular, we analyze spelling errors in the assignee field of patents granted by the United States Patent & Trademark Office.

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  • A conceptual graph is a graph representation for logic based on the semantic networks of artificial intelligence and the existential graphs of Charles Sanders Peirce. Several versions of CGs have been designed and implemented over the past thirty years. The simplest are the typeless core CGs, which correspond to Peirce’s original existential graphs. More common are the extended CGs, which are a typed superset of the core. The research CGs have explored novel techniques for reasoning, knowledge representation, and natural language semantics.

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  • Some of the meaning of a discourse is encoded in its linguistic forms. Thls is the truth-conditional meaning of the propositions those forms express and entail. Some of the meaning is suggested (or 'implicated', as Grice would say) by the fact that the encooer expresses just those propositions in just those linguistic forms in just the given contexts [ 2 ] . The first klnd of meaning is usually labeled 'semantics'; it is decoded. The second Is usually labeled 'pragmatlcs'; it is inferred from clues provided by code and context. Both kinds of meaning are related to syntax in...

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  • This paper outlines research on processing strategies being developed for a language understanding systerN, designed to interpret the structure of arguments. For the system, arguments are viewed as trees, with claims as fathers to their evidence. Then understanding becomes a problem of developing a representative argtmlent tree, by locating each proposition of the argument at its appropriate place.

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  • We discuss how a deductive question-answering system can represent the beliefs or other cognitive states of users, of other (interacting) systems, and of itself. In particular, we examine the representation of first-person beliefs of others (e.g., the ~ / v . ~ ' ~ representation of a user'A belief that he himself is rich). Such beliefs have as an essential component "'quasi-indexical pronouns" (e.g., 'he himself'), and, hence, require for their analysis a method of representing these pronominal constructions and performing valid inferences with them. ...

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  • Informally, a disposition is a proposition which is preponderantly, but no necessarily always, true. For example, birds can fly is a disposition, as are the propositions Swedes are blond and Spaniards are dark. An idea which underlies the theory described in this paper is that a disposition may be viewed as a proposition with implicit fuzzy quantifiers which are approximations to all and always, e.g., almost all, almost always, most, frequently, etc. For example, birds can fly may be interpreted as the result of supressing the fuzzy quantifier most in the proposition most birds can fly. ...

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  • This paper presents ',,n iml~lcmcntcd thct~ry fnr quanlifying noun phr:.i.,.;cs in clausc.s ctmt:mting ct)pulnr verbs (e.g.. "he" ~md "bcCOIllC'). Ih(~ccctling fr()nl Icccnt thcorcticnl work I)y Jackcn(Ioll[ I')X31. this c(,uputati(,tal theory recognizes the dependence ol" the quantification dccisit)n tm the dcl~nitcness, in(lclhfitcncss, or cla'~nncs.s hi" I)olh the subject and ()hjcct of c(apulnr verbs irt Fnglish.

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  • We propose a mapping between prosodic phenomena and semantico-pragmatic effects based upon the hypothesis t h a t intonation conveys information about the intentional as well as the attentional s t r u c t u r e of discourse.

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  • The inquiry semantics approach of the Nigel computational systemic grammar of English has proved capable of revealing distinctions within propositional content that the text planning process needs to control in order for adequate text to be generated. An extension to the chooser and inquiry framework motiwLted by a Japanese clause generator capable of expressing levels of politeness makes this facility available for revealing the distinctions necessary among interpersonal, social meanings also. ...

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  • We introduce a first-order version of Categorial Grammar, based on the idea of encoding syntactic types as definite clauses. Thus, we drop all explicit requirements of adjacency between combinable constituents, and we capture wordorder constraints simply by allowing subformulae of complex types to share variables ranging over string positions. We are in this way able to account for constructiods involving discontinuous constituents.

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