For decades we have been learning about the interplay between tumors and the
immune system. Our knowledge seemed somewhat incomplete and indirect, like
listening to the ocean waves through a shell. Only recently, cancer immunotherapy has
started to become a reality, with Provenge (Dendreon Corporation, WA), an
autologous antigen-presenting cell preparation, earning the approval of United States
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer in
Immune system is composed of innate and adaptive responses and plays critical
roles in cancer development and destruction. A century ago, Paul Ehrlich postulated
that cancer would be quite common in long-lived organisms if not for the protective
effects of immunity. About 50 years later, Burnet and Thomas proposed the concept
of cancer immunosurveillance based on the experimental evidence of immune recognition
of tumor antigens expressed on tumor cells (Dunn et al. 2004 ) . In 1971, the
US Congress created a National Cancer Act – a War on Cancer.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về hóa học được đăng trên tạp chí sinh học quốc tế đề tài : Aberrant expression and potency as a cancer immunotherapy target of alpha-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase in prostate cancer
The type of cancer that develops in the cortex of the adrenal gland is called adrenal
cortical carcinoma. It is also known as adrenocortical cancer (or carcinoma) or just
adrenal cancer. In this document, the term adrenal cancer is used to mean cancer that
starts in the adrenal cortex.
Adrenal cancer most often is discovered for 1 of 2 reasons. The first is that it produces
hormones that cause body changes such as weight gain and fluid retention, early puberty
in children, or excess facial or body hair growth in women.
The second reason an adrenal cancer may be...
More recently the results of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) (Thompson et al.
2003) demonstrated that there is no PSA threshold below which one can confidently
exclude a diagnosis of prostate cancer. The PCPT trial protocol required “normal” men
with very low levels of PSA to be biopsied at the end of the trial and it was observed that
39.2% of men with a PSA 2.1-3.0 ng/mL, 27.7% of men with a PSA 1.1-2.0 ng/mL, and
16.3% of men with a PSA