Prostate gland

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Radiation Oncology cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Biological in-vivo measurement of dose distribution in patients’ lymphocytes by gamma-H2AX immunofluorescence staining: 3D conformal- vs. step-and-shoot IMRT of the prostate gland...

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  • Pathology The noninvasive proliferation of epithelial cells within ducts is termed prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. PIN is a precursor of cancer, but not all PIN lesions develop into invasive cancers. Of the cancers identified, 95% are adenocarcinomas; the remainder are squamous or transitional cell tumors or, rarely, carcinosarcomas. Metastases to the prostate are rare, but in some cases colon cancers or transitional cell tumors of the bladder invade the gland by direct extension.

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  • Benign Disease Symptoms Benign proliferative disease may produce hesitancy, intermittent voiding, a diminished stream, incomplete emptying, and postvoid leakage. The severity of these symptoms can be quantitated with the self-administered American Urological Association Symptom Index (Table 91-2), although the degree of symptoms does not always relate to gland size. Resistance to urine flow reduces bladder compliance, leading to nocturia, urgency, and, ultimately, urinary retention.

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  • The prostate gland is actually not a single gland. It is comprised of a collection of glands that are covered by a capsule. A gland is a structure or organ that produces a substance used in another part of the body. The prostate gland lies below the bladder, encircles the urethra, and lies in front of the rectum. Because it lies just in front of the rectum, the posterior aspect of the prostate can be assessed during a rectal examination. The normal size of the prostate gland is about the size of a walnut (Figures 1 and 2)....

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  • The prostate is a small gland in men. It is part of the male reproductive system. The prostate is about the size and shape of a walnut. It sits low in the pelvis, below the bladder and just in front of the rectum. The prostate helps make semen, the milky fluid that carries sperm from the testicles through the penis when a man ejaculates. The prostate surrounds part of the urethra, a tube that carries urine out of the bladder and through the penis.

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  • Eskew et al. introduced the systematic extended biopsy technique and described the 5- region biopsy protocol whereby conventional sextant biopsies were taken along with two additional cores from the far lateral portion of each side and three centralized cores (Eskew et al., 1997). When the prostate gland was over 50cc, one additional core is taken per region. Thirty-five percent of those patients diagnosed with prostate cancer were found to have cancers in the extra five biopsies sites and not in the sextant regions.

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  • The history of the development of prostate biopsy has changed significantly from random biopsies, to systematic to extended biopsy schemes. Systematic sextant biopsies, even when laterally directed, do not provide adequate sampling of the prostate. Ultimately the sextant biopsy technique has now become obsolete in favour of more extended biopsy protocols. To date there is no consensus on the optimal number of cores without significantly increasing morbidity but it has been shown that as prostate gland size increases, the yield of sextant biopsy has decreased (Karakiewicz et al.

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  • Tham khảo sách 'boy’s guide to becoming a teen', y tế - sức khoẻ, y học thường thức phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • The type of cancer that develops in the cortex of the adrenal gland is called adrenal cortical carcinoma. It is also known as adrenocortical cancer (or carcinoma) or just adrenal cancer. In this document, the term adrenal cancer is used to mean cancer that starts in the adrenal cortex. Adrenal cancer most often is discovered for 1 of 2 reasons. The first is that it produces hormones that cause body changes such as weight gain and fluid retention, early puberty in children, or excess facial or body hair growth in women. The second reason an adrenal cancer may be...

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  • Two tests are available to screen for prostate cancer: prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and digital rectal examination (DRE). The first of these is a blood test, and the second is a physical examination by a doctor where a finger is passed into the rectum to directly feel for enlargement or a nodule in the prostate gland. The subsequent diagnostic test is a prostatic biopsy taken through the rectum. This paper will discuss the use of PSA as part of a screening program. In clinical practice DRE is used to supplement rather than replace PSA. Wilson and Jungner described a...

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  • Although transperineal prostate biopsy with TRUS guidance was described in 1981 (Holm and Gammelgaard, 1981), more recent research has been undertaken on this previously used transperineal approach with the additional use of templates. This has facilitated control of the biopsy gun and allowed uniform sampling of the whole prostate. Furthermore there has been growing interest in the use of brachytherapy grid to take transperineal biopsies and therefore saturate the entire gland.

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  • With increasing number of cores came the concept of saturation biopsy, a term coined by Stewart et al. (Stewart et al., 2001), in which 20 or more systematic cores were taken. Djavan et al. developed tables to recommend more cores for larger glands, but these met with little clinical acceptance (Djavan et al., 1999). These saturation biopsies have been offered to those who have had previous negative biopsies but continue to have clinical suspicion for prostate cancer.

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