Prosthetic groups

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  • Vitamins and trace minerals are required constituents of the human diet since they are either inadequately synthesized or not synthesized in the human body. Only small amounts of these substances are needed for carrying out essential biochemical reactions (e.g., acting as coenzymes or prosthetic groups). Overt vitamin or trace mineral deficiencies are rare in Western countries due to a plentiful, varied, and inexpensive food supply; however, multiple nutrient deficiencies may appear together in persons who are chronically ill or alcoholic.

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  • This book is intended as a companion to Thermodynamics and Kinetics for the Biological Sciences, published in 2000.These two books are based on a course that has been given to first-year graduate students in the biological sciences at Duke University.These students typically do not have a strong background in mathematics and have not taken a course in physical chemistry. The intent of both volumes is to introduce the concepts of physical chemistry that are of particular interest to biologists with a minimum of mathematics.

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  • Brain serine racemase contains pyridoxal phosphate as a prosthetic group and is known to become activated by divalent cations such as Ca 2+ and Mg2+ , as well as by ATP and ADP. In vivo, brain serine racemase is also activated by a multi-PSD-95⁄discs large⁄ZO-1 (PDZ) domain glutamate receptor interacting protein (GRIP) that is usually coupled to the GluR2⁄3 subunits of the a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid Ca 2+ channel.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 71. Vitamin and Trace Mineral Deficiency and Excess Vitamin and Trace Mineral Deficiency and Excess: Introduction Vitamins and trace minerals are required constituents of the human diet since they are either inadequately synthesized or not synthesized in the human body. Only small amounts of these substances are needed for carrying out essential biochemical reactions (e.g., acting as coenzymes or prosthetic groups).

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 140. Infections Due to the HACEK Group and Miscellaneous Gram-Negative Bacteria The HACEK Group HACEK organisms are a group of fastidious, slow-growing, gram-negative bacteria whose growth requires an atmosphere of carbon dioxide. Species belonging to this group include several Haemophilus species, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella kingae. HACEK bacteria normally reside in the oral cavity and have been associated with local infections in the mouth.

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  • HACEK organisms are a group of fastidious, slow-growing, gram-negative bacteria whose growth requires an atmosphere of carbon dioxide. Species belonging to this group include several Haemophilus species, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella kingae. HACEK bacteria normally reside in the oral cavity and have been associated with local infections in the mouth. They are also known to cause severe systemic infections— most often bacterial endocarditis, which can develop on either native or prosthetic valves (Chap. 118).

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  • We purified an extracellular pyranose dehydrogenase (PDH) from the basidiomycete fungusAgaricus xanthodermausing ammonium sulfate frac-tionation and ion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The native enzyme is a monomeric glycoprotein (5% carbohydrate) con-taining a covalently bound FAD as its prosthetic group.

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  • Institute for Organic Chemistry, University of Karlsruhe, Germany; 2Institute for Organic Chemistry, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary Elucidation of the 3D structure of histidine ammonia-lyase (HAL, EC 4.3.1.3) from Pseudomonas putida by X-ray crystallography revealed that the electrophilic prosthetic group at the active site is 3,5-dihydro-5-methylidene-4H-i´ midazol-4-one (MIO) [Schwede, T.F., Retey, J., Schulz, G.E. (1999) Biochemistry, 38, 5355 –5361].

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  • In this chapter, students will be able to understand: Understand what are essential Ions Cofactors; understand how metal ions can function as electrophiles in active site; define coenzyme, cosubstrate, prosthetic group, metabolite coenzymes, Vitamin; know what Vitamin corresponds to what coenzyme;...

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  • Biosynthesis of hemed1, the essential prosthetic group of the dissimilatory nitrite reductase cytochromecd1 , requires the methylation of the tetrapyr-role precursor uroporphyrinogen III at positions C-2 and C-7. We pro-duced Pseudomonas aeruginosaNirE, a putativeS-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM)-dependent uroporphyrinogen III methyltransferase, as a recombi-nant protein inEscherichia coliand purified it to apparent homogeneity by metal chelate and gel filtration chromatography.

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  • 2-Cys peroxiredoxins are peroxidases devoid of prosthetic groups that mediate in the defence against oxidative stress and the peroxide activation of signaling pathways. This dual capacity relies on the high reactivity of the conserved peroxidatic and resolving cysteines, whose modification embraces not only the usual thiol–disulfide exchange but also higher oxida-tion states of the sulfur atom.

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  • A class III peroxidase, isolated and characterized from the latex of the perennial Mediterranean shrub Euphorbia characias, contains one ferric iron–protoporphyrin IX pentacoordinated with a histidine ‘proximal’ ligand as heme prosthetic group.

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  • Soluble methane mono-oxygenase (sMMO) ofMethylo-coccus capsulatus (Bath) catalyses the O2-dependent and NAD(P)H-dependent oxygenation of methane and numer-ous other substrates. During puri®cation, the sMMO enzyme complex, which comprises three components and has a molecular mass in excess of 300 kDa, becomes inac-tivated because of cleavage of just 12 amino acids from the N-terminus of proteinB, which is the smallest component of sMMOand theonlyonewithout prosthetic groups.

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  • Organism-Specific Therapies Streptococci To select the optimal therapy for streptococcal endocarditis, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of penicillin for the causative isolate must be determined (Table 118-4). The 2-week penicillin/gentamicin or ceftriaxone/gentamicin regimens should not be used to treat complicated native valve infection or prosthetic valve endocarditis. The regimen recommended for relatively penicillin-resistant streptococci is advocated for treatment of endocarditis caused by organisms of group B, C, or G.

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  • Molecular phylogeny among catalase–peroxidases, cyto-chromecperoxidases, and ascorbate peroxidases was ana-lysed. Sixty representative sequences covering all known subgroups of class I of the superfamily of bacterial, fungal, and plant heme peroxidases were selected. Each sequence analysed contained the typical peroxidase motifs evolved to bind effectively the prosthetic heme group, enabling per-oxidatic activity.

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