The past decade has seen the field of proteomics expand from a highly technical endeavor to a widely utilized technique. The objective of this book is to highlight the ways in which proteomics is currently being employed to address issues in the biological sciences. Although there have been significant advances in techniques involving the utilization of proteomics in biology, fundamental approaches involving basic sample visualization and protein identification still represent the principle techniques used by the vast majority of researchers to solve problems in biology.
Blood, urine and stomach contents (including gastric lavage fluid and vomitus) are usually used as specimens for analysis of drugs and poisons for living subjects. A blood concentration of a toxin can be an indicator for estimation of intoxication degree. Urine sometimes contains large amounts of metabolites and/or an unchanged form of a toxin; it contains low levels of proteins, which usually interfere with analysis, and thus is suitable for screening tests using immunoassays without tedious pretreatments.
Biomedical research has entered a new era of characterizing a disease or a protein on a global scale. In the post-genomic era, Proteomics now plays an increasingly important role in dissecting molecular functions of proteins and discovering biomarkers in human diseases. Mass spectrometry, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and high-density antibody and protein arrays are some of the most commonly used methods in the Proteomics field.
Small amount of drugs and poisons incorporated into human bodies are hidden among large amounts of biological components, such as proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and membranes. It is not easy to detect only a target compound from such complicated matrices. Before instrumental analysis, extraction procedure is usually essential and very important.
The current volume entitled Protein Purification is designed to facilitate rapid access to valuable information about various methodologies. It aims as well to provide an overview of state-of-art techniques for the purification, analysis and quantification of proteins in complex samples using different enrichment strategies.Protein purification is a series of processes intended to isolate a single type of protein from a complex mixture. Protein purification is vital for the characterization of the function, structure and interactions of the protein of interest....
The field of biochemistry is diverse and forms parts of diverse
fields including cell biology, molecular biology and medical sciences.
Biochemistry is the study of the molecules of life like
proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids. Studying the
structure, properties and reactions of these important molecules
would help in better understanding life as a whole. The practical
aspect along with the theoretical background would help
in better understanding these mechanisms. This book tries to
address and compile some of the routinely used protocols in biochemistry
for easy access.
As coumarin rodenticides, warfarin, coumatetralyl, coumafuryl, coumachlor and bromadiolone are commercially available in Japan. The coumarin rodenticides do not show direct anticoagulant action causing bleeding, but inhibit the metabolic cycle of vitamin K; the inhibition causes the interference with protein biosynthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulant factors (II, VII, IX and X factors) in the liver, which are very important for the blood coagulation system. The lowered coagulant factors cause the bleeding deaths of the rodents .
1928, Frederick Griffith, was one of the first experiments
suggesting that bacteria are capable of transferring
genetic information through a process known
§ 1944:Avery, MacLeod & McCarty - Strong evidence that
DNA is genetic material
§ 1950:Chargaff - careful analysis of DNA from a wide
variety of organisms.
Surfactants can be classified into cationic, anionic and nonionic ones. Benzalkonium chlorides are cationic surfectants and being widely used as a disinfectant and germicide using their strong protein-denaturing action. Especially in hospitals, 10 % solution of benzalkonium chloride mixture is being usually used; it is diluted to 0.05–0.1 % solution to be used for various types of disinfection. The drugs are contained in gargles and preservative solutions for contact lenses.
Cresol is being used for an antiseptic, disinfectant, maggot-killing agent and cresol soap solution. Since various kinds of more powerful and odorless disinfectants have nowadays become available in practical use, the frequency in the use of cresol seems decreasing. However, the cases of acute poisoning by cresol are still being reported at the present time. The toxic effects of cresol are due to its corrosive actions, resulting in the destruction of cell membranes and coagulation of proteins, and its suppressive action on the central nervous system .
TheOryza sativalectin, abbreviated Orysata, is a mannose-specific, jacalin-related lectin expressed in rice plants after exposure to certain stress condi-tions. Expression of a fusion construct containing the rice lectin sequence
linked to enhanced green fluorescent protein in Bright Yellow 2 tobacco
cells revealed that Orysata is located in the nucleus and the cytoplasm of
the plant cell, indicating that it belongs to the class of nucleocytoplasmic
Brain serine racemase contains pyridoxal phosphate as a prosthetic group
and is known to become activated by divalent cations such as Ca
, as well as by ATP and ADP. In vivo, brain serine racemase is also
activated by a multi-PSD-95⁄discs large⁄ZO-1 (PDZ) domain glutamate
receptor interacting protein (GRIP) that is usually coupled to the GluR2⁄3
subunits of the a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid
To measure mechanical stress in real time, we designed a fluorescence reso-nance energy transfer (FRET) cassette, denoted stFRET, which could be
inserted into structural protein hosts. The probe was composed of a green
fluorescence protein pair, Cerulean and Venus, linked with a stablea-helix.
This article outlines the basic parameters and current status of the Integrated Data for Event Analysis
(IDEA) project. IDEA provides a comprehensive events framework for the analysis of international
interactions by supplementing the event forms from all earlier projects with new event forms needed
to monitor contemporary trends in civil and interstate politics.
Most integral membrane proteins are targeted, inserted and assembled in
the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. The sequential and potentially over-lapping events necessary for membrane protein integration take place at
sites termed translocons, which comprise a specific set of membrane pro-teins acting in concert with ribosomes and, probably, molecular chaperones
to ensure the success of the whole process.
A novel plant protein isolated from the underground bulbs of
Scadoxus multiflorus, xylanase and a-amylase inhibitor protein (XAIP),
inhibits two structurally and functionally unrelated enzymes: xylanase and
a-amylase. The mature protein contains 272 amino acid residues which
show sequence identities of 48% to the plant chitinase hevamine and 36%
to xylanase inhibitor protein-I, a double-headed inhibitor of GH10 and
Although several proteins undergo tyrosine phosphorylation at the nuclear
envelope, we achieved, for the first time, the identification of tyrosine-phos-phorylation sites of a nuclear-membrane protein, emerin, by applying two
mass spectrometry-based techniques.
Mature lung surfactant protein C (SP-C) corresponds to residues 24–58 of
the 21 kDa proSP-C. A late processing intermediate, SP-C
to residues 12–58 of proSP-C, lacks the surface activity of SP-C, and the
SP-Ci a-helical structure does not unfold in contrast to the metastable
nature of the SP-C helix.
Oviparous development in the extremophile crustacean,Artemia franciscana,
generates encysted embryos which enter a profound state of dormancy,
termed diapause. Encystment is marked by the synthesis of p26, a polydis-perse small heat shock protein thought to protect embryos from stress.