Protein metabolism

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  • The main contents of this chapter include all of the following: Protein metabolism, oxidation of amino acids, protein synthesis, catabolic-anabolic steady state, nutrient pools, amino acid pool, carbohydrate and fat pools, absorptive and postabsorptive states,...

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  • The food we eat has a major effect on our physical health and psychological wellbeing. An understanding of the way in which nutrients are metabolized, and hence of the principles of biochemistry, is essential for an understanding of the scientific basis of what we would call a prudent or healthy diet. My aim in the following pages is to explain both the conclusions of the many expert committees that have deliberated on the problems of nutritional requirements, diet and health over the years and also the scientific basis on which these experts have reached their conclusions.

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  • (BQ) Part 1 book "The big picture: Medical biochemistry" presents the following contents: Amino acids and proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleosides, nucleotides, DNA, and RNA; integrated usmle style questions and answer, enzymes and amino acid protein metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, membranes, DNA/RNA function and protein synthesis.

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  • (BQ) Part 2 book "Lehninger principles of biochemistry" presents the following contents: Bioenergetics and metabolism (principles of bioenergetics; glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and the pentose phosphate pathway; the metabolism of glycogen in animals,...), information pathways (genes and chromosomes, DNA metabolism, RNA metabolism, protein metabolism,...).

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  • Fatty acids are an important energy source, for they yield over twice as much energy as an equal mass of carbohydrate or protein. In humans, the primary dietary source of fatty acids is triacylglycerols. This lecture will describe the metabolism of fatty acids. The two main components of fatty acid metabolism are β oxidation and fatty acid synthesis. Upon completion of this lecture, you will understand that the fatty-acid breakdown reactions of β oxidation result in the formation of reduced cofactors and acetyl-CoA molecules, which can be further catabolized to release free energy.

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  • Protein phosphorylation is a reversible posttranslational modification catalyzed by protein kinases and reversely by protein phosphatases. There are about 500 protein kinases and 25-30 phosphatases in human genome. Each kinase and phosphatase targets multiple substrates. Thus, protein phosphorylation is a most versatile signaling regulatory mechanism and constitutes a most complicated signaling network in living organisms. In fact, protein phosphorylation governs all aspects of physiological and pathological processes in human health....

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  • Iron is the most abundant element on earth representing nearly 90% of the mass in the earth’s core, yet only trace elements are present in living cells. Most of the iron in the body is located within the porphyrin ring of heme, which is incorporated into proteins such as hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, catalases and peroxidases. Although iron appears in a variety of oxidation states, in particular as hexavalent ferrate, the ferrous and ferric forms are of most importance.

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  • Adequate transport of large proteins that function in the nucleus is indis-pensable for cognate molecular events within this organelle. Selective pro-tein import into the nucleus requires nuclear localization signals (NLS) that are recognized by importin receptors in the cytoplasm.

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  • Chapter 10 introduction to metabolism. After studying this chapter you will be able to: Define catabolism and anabolism and know general properties regarding each, know the difference between a heterotroph and a autotroph, know the general spatial organization of pathways (multienzyme complexes, individual soluble proteins, membrane associated),...

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  • In an attempt to identify potential therapeutic targets for the correction of muscle wasting, the gene expression of several pivotal proteins involved in protein metabolism was investigated in experimental atrophy induced by transient or definitive denervation, as well as in four animal models of muscular dystrophies (deficient for calpain 3, dysferlin,a-sarcoglycan and dystrophin, respectively).

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  • (BQ) Part 2 book "Endocrine physiology" presents the following contents: Carbohydrate metabolism A - Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis; the tricarboxylic acid cycle; carbohydrate metabolism B: Di-, Oligo-, and polysaccharide synthesis and degradation; lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism; nucleotide metabolism, photosynthesis; DNA, RNA, and protein metabolism.

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  • Những sai hỏng trao đổi chất bẩm sinh ở người A. Garrod, 1923 xuất bản Inborn errors of metabolism, đầu tiên phát hiện bệnh Alkaptouria (nước tiểu đen) liên quan đến gene lặn. Gene có liên quan đến phản ứng sinh hóa. Phát hiện tiếp theo: Bệnh Alkaptouria do thiếu enzyme oxidase của Homogentisic acid. Cho đến nay hàng nghìn bệnh di truyền trao đổi chất bẩm sinh được phát hiện.

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  • With the introduction of genetic engineering of Escherichia coli by Cohen, Boyer and co-workers in 1973, the way was paved for a completely new approach to optimisation of existing biotech processes and development of completely new ones. This lead to new biotech processes for the production of recombinant proteins, e.g. the production of human insulin by a recombinant E. coli.

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  • “Epigenetics” as introduced by ConradWaddington in 1946, is defined as a set of interactions between genes and the surrounding environment, which determines the phenotype or physical traits in an organism, (Murrell et al., 2005;Waddington, 1942). Initial research focused on genomic regions such as heterochromatin and euchromatin based on dense and relatively loose DNA packing, since these were known to contain inactive and active genes respectively, (Yasuhara et al., 2005).

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  • In the first volume of this two-volume book, Advanced Nutrition: Macronutrients , the needs for the macronutrients were discussed. The absorption, metabolism, excretion, and function of the various sources of energy as well as detailed discussions of the need for water and energy balance were presented. The needs for the micronutrients, as well as explanations of how these nutrients function in the body, were deferred to this, the second volume.

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  • Eat for better health and weight loss the Paleo way with this revised edition of the bestselling guide-over 100,000 copies sold to date! Healthy, delicious, and simple, the Paleo Diet is the diet we were designed to eat. If you want to lose weight-up to 75 pounds in six months-or if you want to attain optimal health, The Paleo Diet will work wonders. Dr.

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  • PLANT CELLS, UNLIKE ANIMAL CELLS, are surrounded by a relatively thin but mechanically strong cell wall. This wall consists of a complex mixture of polysaccharides and other polymers that are secreted by the cell and are assembled into an organized network linked together by both covalent and noncovalent bonds. Plant cell walls also contain structural proteins, enzymes, phenolic polymers, and other materials that modify the wall’s physical and chemical characteristics.

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  • The corresponding chapter in the previous edition of this book concluded by describing protein and energy metabolism as a unity instead of an interaction of separate components of metabolism....

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  • PLANT BIOLOGISTS MAY BE FORGIVEN for taking abiding satisfaction in the fact that Mendel’s classic studies on the role of heritable factors in development were carried out on a flowering plant: the garden pea. The heritable factors that Mendel discovered, which control such characters as flower color, flower position, pod shape, stem length, seed color, and seed shape, came to be called genes. Genes are the DNA sequences that encode the RNA molecules directly involved in making the enzymes and structural proteins of the cell.

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  • All cellular proteins are in a continuous state of turnover in which they are synthesized and degraded (Waterlow et al., 1978). Thus, the intracellular concentration of any protein, and the tissue, organ or whole-body protein mass, are determined by the relative synthetic and....

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