Individual differences that have consequences for work behaviors (e.g., job performance)
are of great concern for organizations, both public and private. General
mental ability has been a popular, although much debated, construct in Industrial,
Work, and Organizational (IWO) Psychology for almost 100 years. Individuals
differ on their endowments of a critical variable—intelligence—and differences
on this variable have consequences for life outcomes.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học General Psychiatry cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Psychological correlates of self-reported functional limitation in patients with ankylosing spondylitis...
The development of Understanding Research in Clinical and Counseling Psychology
is the result of our experiences teaching and working with students in
professional psychology over many years. Although virtually all graduate programs
require a course on research, the basis for that requirement is often shrouded
in mystery for many students. Students enter their graduate training with the admirable
ambition of learning skills important for assisting clients to make changes.
This volume contains edited versions of papers that were presented at the 2001
Advertising and Consumer Psychology Conference in Seattle, Washington. This
annual conference was sponsored by the Society for Consumer Psychology (Division
23 of the American Psychological Association) with sponsorship assistance
from Accenture Institute for Strategic Change.
In the Essentials of Behavioral Science series, our goal is to provide readers with
books that will deliver key practical information in an efficient, accessible style.
The series features books on a variety of topics, such as statistics, psychological
testing, and research design and methodology, to name just a few. For the experienced
professional, books in the series offer a concise yet thorough review of
a specific area of expertise, including numerous tips for best practices.
Forty years ago there was hardly a ﬁeld called ‘behavioral sciences’. In fact, psychology largely
was the behavioral sciences, with some help from group theory in sociology and decision-
making in economics. Now, of course, psychology has expanded and developed in a myriad
of ways, to the point where ‘behavioral sciences’ is often the more useful term. Physiological
psychology has become neuroscience, covering areas not previously part of psychology.
Decision-making has become decision science, involving people from economics, marketing,
and other disciplines.
Although pregnancy is considered a normal state, it is a vulnerable period in a woman's life
because of exposure to a series of physical, mental, and socially adverse conditions. The earlier
these conditions are recognized and addressed, the greater the chances of minimizing their
Addressing psychological distress during the perinatal period in an appropriate way makes
circumstances better for the woman and her baby in the contexts in which they are living. Health
workers attitudes and behaviours are of fundamental importance to promoting mental health.
Herbert Simon’s work on bounded rationality has had little impact on health
policy discourse, despite numerous supportive findings. This is particularly sur-
prising in regard to the elderly, a group marked by a decline in higher cognitive
functions. Elders’ cognitive capacity to make decisions will be challenged even
further with the introduction of the new Medicare prescription drug benefit
program, mainly because of the many options available. At the same time, a
growing body of evidence points to the perils of having too many choices.
Two links must hold for conventional financial education to be effective. Education
must improve relevant knowledge and understanding (financial literacy) and better
knowledge must change behaviour. Unscrambling causality from correlation is hard.
The best empirical work finds that financial education is not likely to have major
lasting effects on knowledge and especially on behaviour. Psychology may be the
main driver of what people actually do.
Our main contribution is to study a variable, international soccer results, that has particu-
larly attractive properties as a measure of mood. While extensive psychological evidence, which
we review below, shows that sports in general have a signiﬁcant eﬀect on mood, TV viewing
ﬁgures, media coverage, and merchandise sales suggest that soccer in particular is of “national
interest” in many of the countries we study.
1 It is hard to imagine other regular events that
produce such substantial and correlated mood swings in a large proportion of a country’s pop-
Over the last ﬁfty years, the “Big Five” model of personality traits has become a standard in psychology, and research has systematically documented correlations between a wide range of linguistic variables and the Big Five traits. A distinct line of research has explored methods for automatically generating language that varies along personality dimensions. We present PERSONAGE (PERSONAlity GEnerator), the ﬁrst highly parametrizable language generator for extraversion, an important aspect of personality. ...
Probabilistic accounts of language processing can be psychologically tested by comparing word-reading times (RT) to the conditional word probabilities estimated by language models. Using surprisal as a linking function, a signiﬁcant correlation between unlexicalized surprisal and RT has been reported (e.g., Demberg and Keller, 2008), but success using lexicalized models has been limited. In this study, phrase structure grammars and recurrent neural networks estimated both lexicalized and unlexicalized surprisal for words of independent sentences from narrative sources. ...