In 1977, Dr. George Engel’s seminal article on the biopsychosocial
model of disease, “The Need for a New Medical Model:
A Challenge for Biomedicine,” was published in Science. Over
20 years later, the article is still required reading in many
training programs in psychiatry, nursing, psychology, and
social work, because the biopsychosocial model advances a
comprehensive understanding of disease and treatment. The
model is derived from general systems theory, which proposes
that each system affects and is affected by the other systems....
Editing this book was a pleasant, but challenging job. I enjoyed reviewing chapters
from different domains, bringing up-to-date empirical research studies, excellent
literature reviews and controversial issues. This was an instructive experience for me
and the authors. We both learned from each other, making different backgrounds a
gain-gain situation, by evaluating each chapter critically from different perspectives.
We are sure the reader will enjoy the end result: a selection of chapters from different
More than 30 years ago, Aaron T. Beck (1967, 1976) emphasized the
operation of cognitive schemas as the most fundamental factor in his theories
of emotional disorders. Schemas, accordingly, played a principal role in the
development and maintenance of psychological disorders as well as in the
recurrence and relapse of episodes.
One morning, long ago, John woke up and decided he wanted to write a book on theories
and techniques in counseling and psychotherapy. He thought, “Of all the classes I
teach, I love teaching theories and techniques best, so I should write a textbook.”
John then began using a cognitive self-instructional problem-solving strategy (see
Chapter 8). He identified the problems associated with existing theories and techniques
textbooks and formulated possible solutions.
.Treating Personality Disorder
This book considers personality disorders and how they are treated within the institutional context of prisons and hospitals and oﬀers practical guidance on assessment, formulation and integrated treatment planning.
Available primarily as an emulsifiable concentrate, these materials are used mainly as space sprays for
fly control. About 6 million square feet of the area in North Carolina poultry houses (3 percent) are
treated with pyrethrins. The insecticide (synergized with PBO) is generally applied at a rate of 0.0002 to
0.001 pound of active ingredient per 1,000 cubic feet of volume. It is used to treat 6 percent of breeders
and layers for mites and lice at a rate of approximately 0.01 pound of active ingredient per 100 birds.
The main problems encountered with legal frameworks are
that they are too weak or conflicting. Country experiences
range from Albania, which would like to move towards the EU
Water Framework Directive but currently has a legal system
that has little in common with the EU; to Peru and Samoa,
where national laws can conflict with traditional practices
The main problems encountered with strategic planning,
national policies, transboundary agreements and integrated
water resources plans, are that they are non-existent or