Psychological functioning

Xem 1-20 trên 53 kết quả Psychological functioning
  • The aim of this volume is to focus on how counseling psychology fosters and builds optimal human strength and well-being. Counseling psychology in some form has always been a vital part of promoting good health and preventing mental, physical, and social disorders. The chapters in this book show how counseling psychology plays a major role in helping people make changes at home, work, and in the community in ways that prevent disease risk and strengthen personal and social resources.

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  • THE title of the present work is in itself a sufficiently clear indication of the contents. In it, the attempt is made to show the connexion between two sciences whose subject−matters are closely interrelated, but which have, for the most part, followed wholly divergent paths. Physiology and psychology cover, between them, the field of vital phenomena; they deal with the facts of life at large, and in particular with the facts of human life.

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  • Positive human functioning is perhaps most remarkable when evident in contexts of significant life challenge and adversity. It is then, when individuals are being tested, that much becomes known about human strengths—what they are, how they come about, how they are nurtured or undermined. The growing literature on human resilience addresses this juxtaposition of being well in the face of difficulty.

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  • Latina/os are now the largest and fastest growing minority group in the United States, representing approximately 33 million in the year 2000, and two thirds of them are Chicana/os. However, there are major differences among Latino subgroups in terms of their cultural characteristics, immigration experiences, history, socioeconomic levels, and other important factors. It is no longer appropriate to negate these differences or to assume that all Latinos share similar psychological issues (McNeill et al., 2001).

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  • This article raises questions that must be solved if psychol- ogists are to develop a science of positive psychology. First, how should psychology quantify positive mental health? At present, psychology has no metric except per-haps scores of greater than 85 on the DSM-1V's Axis V (Global Assessment of Functioning). If more reliable meth- ods or assessing the relative maturity of defenses can be developed, psychology may gain a means of quantifying the theoretical formula for positive mental health that Marie Jahoda (1959) offered to psychology 40 years ago.

     

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  • Elaboration likelihood model (ELM): People focus on different aspects of a persuasive message as a function of their involvement in the message content. There are two distinct routes of persuasion.

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  • This collective volume contains nine essays on globalisation, a multidimensional and multidisciplinary issue that we are all deeply concerned. Globalisation is like the force majeure from the ever-expanding universe after the Big Bang. As a result, all the currently functioning national systems have been driven out of their old comfort zones and downgraded to sub-systems, as described by Orlando and González in their joint essay on “thermodynamics”. But, whether we like it or not, globalisation is here to stay....

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  • We report the results of experiments on economic decisions with two populations, one of healthy elderly individuals (average age 82) and one of younger students (average age 20). We examine confidence, decisions under uncertainty, differences between willingness to pay and willingness to accept and the theory of mind (strategic thinking). Our findings indicate that the older adults’ decision behavior is similar to that of young adults, contrary to the notion that economic decision making is impaired with age.

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  • If one asks what neuroscience is, the answer can be found in this book. Neuroscience embraces not only anatomical and physiological studies but also cell biology, computer science, and biochemistry. Equally important for neuroscientific research are other disciplines, such as psychology, psychiatry, neurology and additional recent ones, such as neuroeconomics and social neuroscience. This book comprises chapters on diverse topics in neuroscience ranging from cellular, computational, cognitive, and clinical neuroscience.

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  • Clinical neurophysiology encompasses the application of a wide variety of electrophysiologic methods to the analysis and recording of normal function, as well as to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases involving the central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, autonomic nervous system and muscles. The steady increase in growth of subspecialty knowledge and skill in neurology has led to the need for a compilation of the whole range of physiologic methods applied in each of the major categories of neurologic disease.

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  • Vitamin C can be transported into the cell either as its reduced form or dehydroascorbate (oxidized form), using active sodium-dependent transporters (SVCT1 and SVCT2) and facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs) (André et al., 2010). GLUTs also permit the permeation of vitamin C into mitochondria.

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  • The kidneys are located at both sides of the lumbus, which is therefore described as "the home of the kidney, its main functions are: to store congenital and acquired essence and control human reproduction , dominate water metabolism in other words kidney regulates the distribution of water and helps maintain fluid balance in the body and the reception of Qi which means that the kidney assists the lung in its function of receiving and descending the Qi.

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  • This discussion first reviews early theoretical clarifications of how population health change is linked to reduction in mortality at older ages. We briefly discuss evidence of trends prior to recent decades, subsequent understanding of trends from empirical models of health, and developments in understanding the dimensions of health and the process of health change for an aging population. Recent trends in each dimension of health are then reviewed, ending with a discussion of trends in healthy life, which is a combination of mortality and morbidity dimensions....

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  • Oversight is an important role assumed by the Bundesbank in the field of payment transactions. This task is clarified with the latest amendment to Section 3 of the BBankG and is also recognised by the Treaty and the Statute as a basic task of the Eurosystem. Its aim is to ensure smooth payment transactions and encourage efficiency and security. In practical terms, this function is exercised largely by means of the general agreements on procedures and standards jointly developed with the banking sector and via institutionalised dialogues in various official bodies.

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  • Another salient emotion in moving experiences is the feeling of inspi- ration. The word “inspired” means, in its etymological sense, to be filled with breath, spirit, and life. Thus, the emotion of learning at its most powerful is the feeling of increased vitality as we realize our growing capacity to perceive and act. This particular quality of experience is addressed indirectly, at best, in mainstream psychological traditions. For example, the motivation construct of goals...

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  • Background: Depressive disorder is often chronic and recurrent, and results in a heavy psychosocial burden on the families of patients with this disorder. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of brief multifamily psychoeducation designed to alleviate their psychosocial burden. Methods: Thirty-two relatives of patients with major depressive disorder participated in an open study testing the effectiveness of brief multifamily psychoeducation. The intervention consisted of four sessions over the...

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  • Well-being is more than the absence of mental illness. One review of the literature (Ryan & Deci, 2001) describes it as ‘optimal psychological functioning and experience’. Precisely what constitutes optimal experience has been the subject of philosophical debate since the roots of the hedonic tradition in the 4th century BC when it was proposed that the goal of life was to experience the maximum amount of pleasure.

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  • Clinical neurophysiology is an area of medical practice focused primarily on measuring function in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the autonomic nervous system, and muscles. The specialty identifies and characterizes diseases of these areas, understands their pathophysiology, and, to a limited extent, treats them. Clinical neurophysiology relies entirely on the measurement of ongoing function—either spontaneous or in response to a defined stimulus—in a patient.

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  • Attachment theory as developed by John Bowlby has since the 1960s stimulated theorizing about the normal and psychopathological development of children, women and men. In an unprecedented way it demonstrated how psychological functioning depends on adequate emphatic interaction from the very beginning of life.

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  • The current extraordinary advances in basic biomedical and social sciences have unprecedented potential to improve the human condition. These insights, together with the human genome project and its successor proteomics, will require an enormous commitment to translational research to harvest their applications for medicine and public health. The progress in political and social theory, linguistics, statistics, psychology, and behavioral sciences generally deserves a similarly broad application of human research to reach full expression.

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