Public economics

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  • Lecture Public economics (5th edition) - Chapter 6 discuss the Rawlsian theory of justice and comment on its relevance to recent political developments in South Africa, explain the median voter theory and indicate its potential strengths and weaknesses, discuss the meaning and importance of Kenneth Arrow’s impossibility theorem, consider whether logrolling (or vote trading) is an efficient means of improving the outcomes of a majority voting system.

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  • Lecture Public economics (5th edition) - Chapter 13 define the wealth tax base, explain the merits and shortcomings of taxing personal net wealth, define the property tax base, describe property tax rating and assessment, explain the effect of property tax on equity using the benefit principle,... and a number of other contents.

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  • The Handbook of Public Sector Economics is first and foremost a textbook for graduate students in public administration and public policy. Although most handbooks are used as reference texts, this particular handbook was proposed and written as a textbook to be used as the primary book in a graduate public economics course or an important secondary or supplementary book in a public finance or public policy course in a program where a course in public economics is not offered.

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  • Are you curious about how we should deal with issues like climate change, international terrorism, decision-making in democracies, migration, an ageing population, social and health insurance? Do you wonder whether the market can always regulate itself, or whether policy is sometimes required to step in? Don't you dare to ask questions that don’t have straightforward answers? The Public Economics track offers you the possibility to do just that

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  • In this chapter, the following content will be discussed: Give a brief overview of different views of the role of government in the economy, list key issues confronting Southern African governments regarding their role in the economy, distinguish between the main institutional categories of the public sector, discuss the salient features of and trends in the size and composition of the South African public sector, discuss various aspects of the relationship between the public sector and the rest of the economy.

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  • Learning outcome of this chapter 2: Identify the critical assumptions of the two-sector model, define what is meant by a Pareto-optimal allocation of resources; articulate the three conditions for a general equilibrium; distinguish between allocative efficiency, X-efficiency, and ‘dynamic’ efficiency (or economic growth); discuss the broad categories of market failure; explain the allocative, distributive, and stabilisation functions of government; distinguish between direct and indirect forms of government intervention.

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  • When you finish this chapter, you should: Explain the effects of positive and negative externalities with the aid of supply and demand analysis, discuss the policy options to correct for externalities, discuss the relative importance of property rights and transaction costs in market-based approaches to dealing with the problem of externalities, discuss cap-and-trade programmes, provide examples of global or regional public goods and consider some of the relevant policy implications.

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  • Learning objectives of this chapter include: Distinguish between the private and public sector approaches to project evaluation; explain the net present value approach to project evaluation and compare it with the internal rate of return and the benefit-cost ratio; show why, under ideal conditions, public sector projects should strive to maximise consumer (and producer) surplus;...

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  • In this chapter: Distinguish between different indirect taxes and indicate their relative, importance as sources of revenue, discuss the merits of indirect taxation, describe the consumption type VAT, explain the economic effects of VAT, describe the personal consumption tax base, discuss the rationale for a personal consumption tax,...

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  • This chapter define fiscal policy and describe fiscal goals and instruments at the macroeconomic, sectoral and microeconomic levels; discuss the evolution of views on the macroeconomic role of fiscal policy, focusing on the distinction between the Keynesian and structural approaches and the choice between discretionary and rulesbased fiscal regimes; distinguish between the various definitions of budget balance and explain the economic significance of each;...

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  • Learning objectives of this chapter include: Define public debt; describe salient characteristics of the size, composition, and nature of public debt in South Africa; explain and compare different theories of public debt and evaluate them critically; argue the relative merits of debt and tax financing of government expenditure; define public debt management; identify and describe the different types of public debt cost; identify the goals of public debt management and discuss their pursuance, with special reference to South Africa.

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  • The study of economics should begin with a sense of wonder. Pause for a moment and consider a typical day in your life. It might start with a bagel made in a local bakery with flour produced in Minnesota from wheat grown in Kansas and bacon from pigs raised in Ohio packaged in plastic made in New Jersey. You spill coffee from Colombia on your shirt made in Texas from textiles shipped from South Carolina.

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  • Discuss how incentives af fect people’s behavior The word economy comes from the Greek word for “one who manages a household.” At first, this origin might seem peculiar. But, in fact, households and economies have much in common. A household faces many decisions.

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  • Chapter 4 discuss the social costs of a monopoly and indicate its relevance for "deregulation", outline the characteristic features of a natural monopoly, discuss the case for and against regulating a natural monopoly, explain the meaning of the "structure-conductperformance" (SCP) hypothesis and discuss its relevance for competition policy in South Africa, explain Demsetz’s "efficiency hypothesis" and discuss its relevance for competition policy generally.

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  • This chapter distinguish between the Pareto and Bergson criteria for a welfare improvement, discuss Nozick’s entitlement theory and its relevance to the recent history of South Africa, explain how a redistribution of income can be justified in terms of the theory of externalities, distinguish between the cardinal and ordinal social welfare functions, discuss the efficiency implications of policies aimed at redistributing income from rich to poor people.

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  • In this chapter: Comment on the implications that the Constitution has on government expenditure in South Africa; discuss salient trends in the size, growth, and composition of government expenditure in South Africa; identify the main similarities and differences between government expenditure patterns in South Africa and other countries;...

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  • In this chapter: Distinguish primary from secondary income distribution, understand the redistributive impact of the budget on secondary income distribution, explain the calculation of a Gini coefficient, identify the excess burden of a subsidy, show how a subsidy could be welfare-enhancing if there are positive externalities associated with consumption of certain goods (e.g. Food for the poor),...

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  • Learning outcome of chapter 10: List alternative sources of government revenue; define a tax and describe the structure of tax rates; distinguish between general and selective taxes, specific and ad valorem taxes, as well as direct and indirect taxes; list the properties of a good tax; explain what is meant by an equitable tax;...

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  • Chapter 11 explain what is meant by tax efficiency, compare the excess burden of different taxes using indifference curves, determine the magnitude of excess burden using the consumer surplus concept, explain the meaning of administrative efficiency and how it can be achieved, show what is meant by tax evasion and how to reduce it, define tax flexibility.

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  • This chapter includes contents: Define the comprehensive income tax base, discuss the international principles of taxing income, discuss the reasons why the personal income tax base differs from the comprehensive income tax base, explain what a progressive personal income tax is and how progressiveness is achieved,...

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