Each household member records spending for the same two diary weeks, so we
must pool observations across households to study expenditures over an entire month.
Given that distance from payday is orthogonal to household characteristics, this pooling
should not bias our estimate of the relationship between distance and spending.8
We impose a number of sample restrictions. People paid weekly are excluded,
because every diary week includes a payday for these individuals.
A comparison between community and inpatient detoxification of alcohol dependent patients
found no difference in the number of patients remaining sober six months later.82 At least three
out of four such patients can be detoxified successfully in the community.82
No studies of outpatient detoxification using medication were identified where fits occurred but
studies had, appropriately, excluded patients with a history of withdrawal seizures or with
Home detoxification does not appear to have any clinical advantages but may offer cost savings.
We know from many research studies that practising
nurses and other healthcare professionals do not
always have the time, confidence or skills to carry
out research or systematic reviews for themselves.
Therefore they rely on reviews by other people
when considering innovations and developments
in their practice.
Our aim for this book, therefore, is to present
readers with the issues arising from conducting
systematic reviews and thereby to help them
understand reviews that they identify and read
when considering developing their health policy,
services and clinical practice....
“KNOW THYSELF” and “To thine own self be true,” aphorisms taken
from classic literary works and passed down through many generations
as standard wisdom, remain popular even today. Centuries ago, when
Socrates and Shakespeare penned those now-immortal words, they probably
did not know that they were glimpsing a broader, more exact
science—that of emotional intelligence. Today, emotional intelligence has
blossomed from studies in social behavior to a measurable, predictable
pattern of thought and action that influences decision making and success
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Bias analysis applied to Agricultural Health Study publications to estimate non-random sources of uncertainty
Special category deposit accounts, diaspora bonds, the securitization
of future remittances, and transnational loans are among the financial
instruments whose potential have yet to be fully exploited. Multilateral
institutions as well as public and private institutions can help developing
countries improve their banking sector and raise credit ratings. One of the
fundamental challenges for many countries that lack foreign investment
is the perception of economic, political, or social risk among the diaspora
and general investors.
The Institute of Medicine’s Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous
System Disorders planned and held a public workshop June 16, 2009,
that brought together experts from industry, academia, government, and
advocacy groups to discuss issues directly related to a recent Food and
Drug Administration (FDA) policy that all clinical protocols for products
developed in the Division of Psychiatry Products (of the FDA) include a
prospective assessment for suicidality.
Academic literature has raised questions about the effectiveness of such
arrangements, pointing out that a "regulatory arm" of an exchange can be
financed through the budget of the profit making entity. Unless the budget of the
regulatory arm is both independent and substantial, the number of instances that
it can investigate may arguably be insufficient (Brown, 2008). The importance
of further insulating the regulatory entities which are part of exchange groups
has therefore been repeatedly stressed in public debate.
In July 1923, the Brazilian composer Heitor Villa-Lobos arrived in Paris as a complete unknown.
Some five years had passed since his first large-scale concert in Brazil; Villa-Lobos journeyed to
Europe with the intention of publicizing his musical output.
His entry into the Parisian art world took place through the group of Brazilian modernist painters
and writers he had encountered in 1922, immediately before the Modern Art Week in São Paulo.
In this study, we make use of a complete dataset of property trades by institutional-grade
REITs who are legally mandated to report such trades to the SEC in their 10-K and 10-Q reports,
thus providing both complete trading information and eliminating selection bias. We augment
this information with a dataset of property trades made by portfolio managers of private entities,
such as commingled real-estate funds, who have legally committed to disclose this information to
a private data collector under a strict non-disclosure agreement.
PLANNING DEVELOPMENT: THE STATE, GLOBALIZATION, AND SHIFTING LOCUS OF PLANNING There are two obvious ways to correct Hoxbys specification for this bias. First, in
the spirit of so-called Heckman corrections (Heckman, 1979; Card and Payne, 2002), one
can control directly for functions of the MSA private enrollment rate in models for public
Compared with the overall school district population, our survey sample is both whiter
and wealthier, an occurrence similar to previous surveys conducted in these school
districts (Schellenberg, personal communication, 2007).
The acceptance bias toward the traditional axis of scholarly literature confirms what publishers experience
day-to-day: there are greater challenges to reviewing and making decisions on this sharp influx of content
from new countries, with diverse cultures and attitudes to publishing, non-English languages (the lingua
franca of academic publication in most subject areas), and a lack of publishing history.