Sarcoidosis is one of the best-known systemic granulomatous diseases. Despite intensive
investigation, however, the etiology of sarcoidosis has remained unresolved for more than 100
years . Sarcoidosis seems to result from the exposure of a genetically susceptible subject to
an environmental agent, and microbial etiologies of sarcoidosis have long been considered
based on the clinical similarities to infectious granulomatous diseases .
In sub-Saharan Africa, as high as 2/3 of tuberculosis patients are HIV/AIDS co-infected and
tuberculosis is the most common cause of death among HIV/AIDS patients worldwide. Tuberculosis and HIV
co-infections are associated with special diagnostic and therapeutic challenges and constitute an immense burden
on healthcare systems of heavily infected countries like Ethiopia. The aim of the study was to determine the
prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis and their immunologic profiles among HIV positive patients.
Over the last decade numerous accounting papers investigate the empirical
relation between stock market values (or changes in values) and particular
accounting numbers for the purpose of assessing or providing a basis of
assessing those numbers’ use or proposed use in an accounting standard. We
call the group of papers that are at least partially motivated by standard-setting
purposes, the ‘‘value-relevance’’ literature. This paper’s objective is to critically
evaluate the standard-setting inferences that can be drawn from these valuerelevance
The recognised supervisory bodies for local public audit would investigate complaints or disciplinary cases, as well as issues identified during their monitoring process. They would also be able to stop a firm being eligible for appointment as a statutory local public auditor and remove them from the register of eligible local public auditors. We are considering whether the overall regulator (i.e.
This explicit step requires the program to seek explanations for unusually high or
low outcomes on each indicator. The organization should establish a routine process
for examining the findings from the latest outcome reports. For example, exhibit 11
compares outcomes for three family service units on one particular demographic
characteristic. The two outlying values circled in the exhibit indicate unusual outcomes
that a program manager will likely want to investigate.
The care of the critically ill has changed
radically during the past 10 years. Technological
advances have improved monitoring,
organ support, and data collection, while small
steps have been made in the development of drug
therapies. Conversely, new challenges (e.g. severe
acute respiratory syndrome [SARS], multiple
antimicrobial resistance, bioterrorism) continue
to arise and public expectations are elevated,
sometimes to an unreasonable level.
To investigate delays in the diagnosis and treatment of inpatients with smear-positive pulmonary
tuberculosis and to identify factors affecting these delays.
Materials/Methods: 204 hospitalized patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis were identified. The
clinical files of the patients were analyzed and questionnaires were created.
Results: Mean application interval was 31.4 days, mean referral interval was 22.1 days, mean diagnosis
interval was 3.3 days, and mean initiation of treatment interval was 1.4 days. Patient delay was
present in 34.8 percent of the patients.
Particle samples are collected on filters that are then weighed. Particle concentrations
are reported in terms of micrograms of particles per cubic meter (µg/m3
) of collected air.
Originally, the particle samples were relatively indiscriminate with respect to particle size
and often contained very large particles. These large particles contributed a great deal
to the weighed particle mass, but might not have been very important with respect to
lung health. This is because most of the particles were too large to penetrate through
the nasal and head airways to reach the lung.
It should not be given sooner than one hour after feeding. The room should be warm; if possible there should
be an open fire. The head and face should first be washed and dried; then the body should be soaped and the
infant placed in the tub with its body well supported by the hand of the nurse. The bath should be given
quickly, and the body dried rapidly with a soft towel, but with very little r
A pre-tested questionnaire was used by a trained
counselor to obtain information on demographic
characteristics, social and medical history from the
subjects. Other important information about PTB such
as previous BCG vaccination, contact with an index
case and exposure to tuberculin skin test were also
Laboratory investigations: Three early morning sputum
were collected from each consenting asymptomatic
subject. The samples were transported to TB laboratory
of the department of Medical Microbiology and
Parasitology, UCH, for immediate processing.
The monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) is involved in the recruitment of lymphocytes and
monocytes and their migration to sites of injury and cellular immune reactions. In a Ghanaian tuberculosis (TB)
case-control study group, associations of the MCP1 -362C and the MCP1 -2581G alleles with resistance to TB were
recently described. The latter association was in contrast to genetic effects previously described in study groups
originating from Mexico, Korea, Peru and Zambia.
Zambia continues to grapple with a high tuberculosis (TB) burden despite a long running Directly
Observed Treatment Short course programme. Understanding issues that affect patient adherence to treatment
programme is an important component in implementation of a successful TB control programme. We set out to
investigate pulmonary TB patient’s attitudes to seek health care, assess the care received from government health
care centres based on TB patients’ reports, and to seek associations with patient adherence to TB treatment
Monitoring the outcome of tuberculosis treatment and understanding the specific reasons for
unsuccessful treatment outcome are important in evaluating the effectiveness of tuberculosis control program.
This study investigated tuberculosis treatment outcomes and predictors for unsuccessful treatment outcome in
the Tigray region of Ethiopia.
Methods: Medical records of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients registered from September 2009
to June 2011 in 15 districts of Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia, were reviewed.
Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is a
milder form of disease in terms of infectivity as
compared to pulmonary TB (PTB). Whereas sputum
can be easily obtained for the detection of disease in
lungs, diagnosis of EPTB is often difficult requiring
invasive and expensive serological/radiological
investigations. A category-wise drug treatment is
similar for the two forms of disease1. However, an
assessment of end point of cure is a problem with
Tuberculosis Dispensaries in Turkey do the follow up of
the treatment of tuberculosis patients. Tuberculosis Dispensaries
are present nearly in all regions the country. In these
dispensaries chest x rays are obtained for patients who has
respiratory complaints and for patients who applied for health
report to start a new job. The sputum examination and
culture are done in patients tuberculosis suspected due to
clinical and radiological findings. The patients who needed
further evaluation were sent to chest disease hospitals.
Smear microscopy and culture forms the backbone of tuberculosis (TB) laboratory investigations in tertiary healthcare facilities which have a large number of cases and financial constraints. The present study aimed to re-evaluate the efficiency of smear microscopy and culture on Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) medium for acid fast bacilli (AFB) isolated from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. 210 samples were processed for detection of AFB by Ziehl Neelsen (ZN) staining. Concentration method of N-acetly-L-cystein-NaOH was used and the samples were isolated on LJ medium. AFB was seen in 168 (80.
This thesis describes the development, implementation and preliminary results of the Arginine and Vitamin D Adjunctive Therapy in Pulmonary Tuberculosis (AVDAPT) randomised controlled trial.
I had a central role in developing and implementing the study protocol collaboratively with my PhD supervisors Associate Professor Paul Kelly (Australian National University, Canberra) and Professor Nicholas Anstey (Menzies School of Health Research, Darwin), and with additional input from the investigators listed in Appendix 1.
This book arose because of the huge amounts of clinical material that pass through
the Singapore General Hospital, the largest tertiary care hospital in Singapore. A
significant proportion of our patients come to us for a second opinion from the
neighboring countries. Often they come to consult us for an abnormality on a
chest radiograph. Pulmonary Medicine is largely based on the strong foundation of
the plain chest radiograph. Indeed, chest radiography is the single most common
investigation carried out in hospital practice.
The glycosyltransferase enzymes (Lgts) responsible for the biosynthesis of
the lipooligosaccharide-derived oligosaccharide structures from Moraxella
catarrhalishave been investigated. This upper respiratory tract pathogen is
responsible for a spectrum of illnesses, including otitis media (middle ear
infection) in children, and contributes to exacerbations of chronic obstruct-ive pulmonary disease in elderly patients.