This book explores both the state-of-the-art and the latest achievements in UWB antennas and propagation. It has taken a theoretical and experimental approach to some extent, which is more useful to the reader. The book highlights the unique design issues which put the reader in good pace to be able to understand more advanced research.
Industry in Jepara comprises a complex network of relationships and flexible subcontracting. The
first aim of this survey was therefore to investigate how these relationships are structured, and
how production is organised and linked to the different market segments, including the sources
of the wood. In addition, we sought to record and quantify these relationships to understand the
contribution of a unit of raw material to the employment, education, and social wealth of people
in the system7
Cinema is meant and believed to entertain, to take the viewer to a world that is starkly different from
the real one, a world which provides escape from the daily grind of life. Cinema is a popular media of mass
consumption which plays a key role in moulding opinions, constructing images and reinforcing dominant
cultural values. The paper deals with representations of women characters in mainstream Bollywood movies.
Another trend supporting the use of social media for knowledge exchange, information and
learning purposes, is reflected in the high usage of Internet sites and services to exchange
In 2008, as Figure 4 illustrates, 61% of European Internet users and 81% of those aged 16 to
24 used the Internet for leisure activities related to obtaining and sharing audiovisual content,
ranging from 43% (aged 16 to 24: 65%) in Ireland to 43% in Luxembourg (95% in the
Netherlands for 16 to 24 year olds). 33% (aged 16 to 24: 46%) used it for listening to Web...
The laser has a range of pulse widths from 5 to 100 milliseconds, which is longer than the
thermal relaxation time of the epidermis and comparable to that of the follicle. This pulse
width range can effectively damage the follicle. However, the epidermis also contains some
melanin and must be protected. A sapphire window (ChillTip) with high thermal conductivity is
put in direct contact with the skin. It cools the epidermis before, during, and after each laser
pulse. Because of index matching, it also reduces internal reflection of back-scattered light.
Operation of the ultrasonic transducers is based on the echo-sounding
principle. Short ultrasonic pulses are sent out by the ultrasonic transducer,
reflected from objects in the vicinity and received again by the ultrasonic
The ultrasonic transducer sends the period of time required between sending
the ultrasonic pulse and receiving the first echo to the PDC unit which, in turn,
calculates the distance to the nearest object from this period of time.
Ultrasonic waves propagate at different speeds in gases, liquids and solids.
The ultrasonic transducer behaves as a ‘speaker’ in send mode (from 40 to 50
kHz). The electronics of the ultrasonic transducer produces electrical pulses
to set the piezoceramic element in motion (conversion of electrical energy to
mechanical energy). The piezoceramic element is located on the inside of the
outer diaphragm. The outer diaphragm vibrates in line with the resonance
frequency and produces ultrasonic waves.
The short pulse sequences hit an obstacle and are bounced back (reflected).