This book discusses aspects of laser pulses generation, characterization, and practical applications. Some new achievements in theory, experiments, and design are demonstrated. The introductive chapter shortly overviews the physical principles of pulsed lasers operation with pulse durations from seconds to yoctoseconds. A theory of mode-locking, based on the optical noise concept, is discussed. With this approximation, all paradoxes of ultrashort laser pulse formation have been explained.
Whereas spark erosion and lasermachining
are suitable for any metal, the use of mechanical precision machining and the tools
suitable for this type depend on the stability of the alloy. For brass and copper, natural
diamondmicrotools are suitable and widely used, while for stainless steel and nickel-
based alloys, hardmetal tools are needed. Figure 1.3 shows a natural diamond cutter,
whereas Figure 1.4 shows a hard metal drill. Figure 1.5 shows photos of a rhodium
honeycombmicrochannel catalyst system.
Overall structure of electrical power system is in the process of changing. For incremental
growth, it is moving away from fossil fuels - major source of energy in the world today - to
renewable energy resources that are more environmentally friendly and sustainable .
Speed. Aside from caffeine, nothing quickens the pulse of a programmer as
much as the blazingly fast execution of a piece of code. How can we fulfill
the need for computational speed? Moore’s law takes us some of the way,
but multicore is the real future. To take full advantage of multicore, we need
to program with concurrency in mind.
In a concurrent program, two or more actions take place simultaneously.
A concurrent program may download multiple files while performing computations
and updating the database. We often write concurrent programs
using threads in Java.